‘Illness, death, and the demographic impact’ outlines how the effects of AIDS can be measured through demographic indicators. Demographic consequences of AIDS may include: increased deaths especially among adults; rising infant and child mortality; falling life expectancy; changes in the population size, growth, and structure; and growing numbers of orphans. How serious these impacts are depends on the location, size, and age of the epidemic; the underlying demographics of a country; and, increasingly, the availability and uptake of treatment. The impacts of AIDS continue to be felt by families and communities after death. There is evidence that AIDS deaths have more serious consequences for survivors than deaths from other causes.