Cosmology began as a scientific discipline at the beginning of the 20th century, with the work of Albert Einstein and Edwin Hubble. Gravitational interaction is fundamental to cosmology, as gravity dominates over all other forces on large-scale distances. ‘Cosmology’ outlines the modern history of cosmology, discussing how studies have provided knowledge on the early Universe and its expansion. The Concordance Model proposes that only c.5 per cent of the energy in the Universe is in the form of normal matter; c.25 per cent is in the form of the gravitationally attractive dark matter; and the remaining c.70 per cent is in the form of the gravitationally repulsive dark energy. But there is still much to learn.