In theory, Canada is one nation. ‘Nationalisms’ shows that the reality is more complex. English Canada, Quebec, and First Nations groups have distinct identities, as does Newfoundland. The First World War divided English Canada and Quebec over conscription, and the Second World War also tested Canada’s national fault lines. The Quiet Revolutions made the 1960s and 1970s a period of excitement, cultural experimentation, and even violence, which was quashed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. Legally, Quebec is a province but after referendums in the 1980s and 1990s, its struggle for independence was successful in everything but name.