Show Summary Details
Page of

date: 29 June 2022

p. 122. How to read the book of lifelocked

p. 122. How to read the book of lifelocked

  • John Archibald


For all its biological importance, DNA is a fragile molecule so extracting it is a difficult process. ‘How to read the book of life’ explains the techniques required to sequence DNA. It begins by explaining the techniques developed for protein and RNA sequencing by Frederick Sanger, Robert Holley, and Carl Woese that were then developed further for DNA sequencing. Following the success of the Human Genome Project, the next generation of DNA sequencing was developed in the mid-2000s. Pyrosequencing was capable of generating orders of magnitude more data at a fraction of the cost, but was superceded within a decade by semiconductor sequencing, reversible chain-termination sequencing, and single-molecule sequencing.

Access to the complete content on Very Short Introductions online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.