Charles V did not try to unite his disparate realms, but ruled instead through the separate governments of his individual lands and kingdoms. The preferred method of 16th-century Habsburg rule was ‘conciliar’. This meant that Habsburg monarchs practised, where they could, government by committee, and functions were devolved to meetings made up largely of experts. ‘“As if the King of each”: 16th and 17th centuries’ describes the almost continuous war against the Ottoman Empire. During the 16th century, Protestantism made extensive inroads into the Austrian lands. In 1606 a lasting peace with the Ottomans was reached, but the day of religious reckoning was not far off.