‘Scotland and the wider world’ examines Scotland's relationships with other countries. When did the English begin to see the Scots as barbarous and alien? The wars of Independence are outlined, and their legacy of distrust discussed. Scots travelled Europe for trade, education, and pilgrimage, and European influences include cosmopolitan architecture, and Edinburgh's Botanic Gardens and university medical school. Emigration is explained, including the devastation of c. 1800–1939, when two million people left, many of them against their will (the clearances). What part did Scots play in the British Empire? Immigration into Scotland is surveyed: which groups of people have settled in Scotland? What percentage of the population is non-white?