The ancients did not define themselves in terms of their sexual identities. The idea of classifying people according to sexual partner would have seemed bizarre to them. Sexual culture wasn't homogeneous across the ancient world. There was substantial variation across regions and time. ‘Before sexuality’ looks closely at sexual culture in Greece and Rome in the social and political context of each region by taking a close look at how ancient Athenians and Romans made sense of sex. Sexual culture was closely intertwined with ideas of sex and gender. Rules governing sex were structured by norms of political citizenship. What influence did the spread of Christianity have on these early ideas of sexuality?