Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, emerged in Africa about seventy thousand years ago. It accompanied modern humans on their migrations out of Africa, across the Indian Ocean, and then into Eurasia. Tuberculosis affects almost all parts of the body. Its most common and deadly form, carried in tiny droplets through the air from person to person and highly infectious, is pulmonary tuberculosis. It thrives in densely packed places. ‘Tuberculosis’ outlines the spread of the disease, early attempts to combat it, Robert Koch’s identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 1882, the development of the BCG vaccine in 1908, the use of antibiotics, and the growing multi-drug-resistant TB problem.