‘Aftermath: Thomism’ discusses Aquinas' philosophical and theological work after his death. Initially there is suspicion among his fellow theologians, and much later a theory of human rights is developed based on his work. The early 19th century sees Catholic theologians such as Georg Hermes and Joseph Kleutgen rethinking Christianity in response to modern philosophy. Modern Thomism counters modern scepticism by directing theologians towards Aristotelian metaphysics and epistemology. By the 20th century, the Roman Catholic Church is relying on Aquinas' philosophical works to challenge modern thought. How are we to understand Aquinas as a philosopher of being?