Do animals think? What do they think about? Can they make predictions? It is clear that there are profound differences between the cognitive capacities of humans and those of non-human animals. ‘Brute thought’ looks at the challenges in studying animal thought such as whether language is necessary for thought, whether we can determine thought in an animal, and whether animals generate thought through their social relations with each other. If language isn't a prerequisite for thought, perhaps mathematical reasoning can be used to generate thought. Can animals remember, or engage in what psychologist Endel Tulving calls ‘mental time travel’? Can thoughts be passed down generations?