In 1987, the conflict returned to the spotlight after the failure of diplomatic efforts following the 1982 Lebanon war. This was when the Palestinian intifada (‘shaking off’), a powerful expression of the depth of Palestinian nationalisms, took off. ‘The rise and fall of the peace process 1987–2007’ considers events from the rise of intifada in the late 1980s to attempts at peace the end of the first decade of the 21st century. The Oslo peace process began with the signing of the first Israeli–Palestinian agreement in 1993. There was fierce opposition on both sides to a diplomatic settlement. The Oslo process ended with individual negotiators outlining the main ingredients of peace, yet with the chance of implementing the resolution crushed by violence.