Philosophers of the Islamic world sought to reconcile the religious norms laid down in the religious law with the ethical and political norms established by unaided human reason. In articulating those rational norms, these thinkers drew on ideas from the classical tradition. Arabic works on ethics were inspired by two sources in particular: Aristotle and Galen, who was himself influenced by Plato and the Stoics. In politics, the most prominent idea to come from the Greeks was Plato’s ideal of the philosopher-king. ‘Ethics and politics’ considers the works of philosophers of the formative period as well as those who followed, including those living during the Ottoman empire, Safavid Iran, and the modern age.