‘The Epicurean legacy’ begins by reviewing the Epicurean philosophy outlined in this VSI. It concludes that the Epicurean depiction of the world was both inspiration for and anathema to generations of later philosophers and their readers. The moral, political, and theological ideas associated with it stimulated metaphysics, science, and social thought, arousing at times furious resistance. Epicureanism is not a fatalistic philosophy. It lays great weight on human choices and preferences, and on the role of chance in presenting challenges and opportunities that call on our powers of invention as well as our rationality. It is also the most compassionate of the ancient ethical systems.