Is there more to learning than simple association? Some psychologists believe there are two systems, referred to by Daniel Kahneman as ‘thinking fast’ and ‘thinking slow’. ‘Surely there is more to learning than that?’ considers the second system of learning: one that is more deliberative and requires effortful mental processes, such as the formation of propositions about things and the use of logic and decision making. It looks at some experimental studies that have been used to support the idea, including Pierre Perruchet’s dissociation studies. The study of learning in both animals and humans continues to provide an insight into how behaviour changes as a consequence of experience.