‘Looking ahead’ shows how our understanding of disease ecology and evolution has revolutionized disease management. By developing transmission control strategies to close the encounter filter and vaccines and treatments to close the compatibility filter, we have reduced the misery caused by infectious disease. But what is the outlook for the future control of infectious diseases? We cannot eradicate infectious disease. Living things have parasitized one another since the beginning of life itself. New zoonotic diseases will continue to emerge, and existing diseases will continually evolve to escape our methods of control. Despite this stark reality, we can minimize the impact of disease even if we can never fully conquer it.