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4. ‘Absolutes’, Simple Natures, and Problems

4. ‘Absolutes’, Simple Natures, and Problems  

Tom Sorell

in Descartes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776632
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854094.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854094
‘Absolutes, Simple Natures and Problems’ deals mainly with the Regulae, an incomplete treatise which anticipated some of the innovations of the Geometry, and which adapted, in outline, some ... More
10. After Being and Time

10. After Being and Time  

Michael Inwood

in Heidegger: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2019
Published Online: 
Jan 2019
eISBN: 
9780191867095
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198828662.003.0010
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198828662
‘After Being and Time’ provides a brief survey of Heidegger’s thought after Being and Time, which reveals something of the overall coherence of his life-long project. Being and Time gave a ... More
2. Aims and Methods

2. Aims and Methods  

A. J. Ayer

in Hume: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776601
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854063.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854063
Hume aimed to continue the empirical enquiry begun by Locke to criticise trust in reason and question the nature of causality. ‘Aims and Methods’ discusses Hume's attempts to create a ... More
4. Alienation and reification

4. Alienation and reification  

Stephen Eric Bronner

in Critical Theory: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2017
Published Online: 
Oct 2017
eISBN: 
9780190692704
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780190692674.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190692674
‘Alienation and reification’ explores the concepts of alienation and reification in Karl Marx's Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, and how this affected 20th century Western ... More
6. America

6. America  

William M. Hamlin

in Montaigne: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2020
Published Online: 
Nov 2020
eISBN: 
9780190848804
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780190848774.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190848774
What did Montaigne think of the New World? “America” looks at two of his essays, “On Coaches” and “On Cruelty.” Montaigne saw virtue as a sliding scale, seeing natural goodness, including ... More
10. Ancient sex

10. Ancient sex  

Gary Gutting

in Foucault: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2019
Published Online: 
Sep 2019
eISBN: 
9780191868849
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198830788.003.0010
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198830788
Towards the end of his life, Foucault’s topic of exploration turned to the ethical formation of the self, which emerged from his analysis of modern power relations. ‘Ancient sex’ looks at ... More
4. Archaeology

4. Archaeology  

Gary Gutting

in Foucault: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2019
Published Online: 
Sep 2019
eISBN: 
9780191868849
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198830788.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198830788
Foucault is mostly regarded as a philosopher, despite the fact that most of his books were histories. He characterized his historic works first as ‘archaeology’ of thought and then later as ... More
1. Arguing with Plato

1. Arguing with Plato  

Julia Annas

in Plato: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2003
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775505
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802163.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802163
‘Arguing with Plato’ explores the themes of knowledge and belief in Plato's dialogue the Theaetetus, in which Socrates shows faults in all of the accounts of knowledge suggested by young ... More
6. Art and ideas

6. Art and ideas  

Christopher Janaway

in Schopenhauer: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775666
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802590.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802590
‘Art and ideas’ examines Schopenhauer's treatment of aesthetic experience. Schopenhauer belongs to a tradition which equates aesthetic experience with a ‘disinterested’ attitude towards its ... More
4. Authenticity

4. Authenticity  

Thomas Flynn

in Existentialism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2006
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775932
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192804280.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192804280
‘Authenticity’ considers how to live a ‘free’ life. Authenticity comes from owning up to our self-defining choices and transcending one's situation to make something of oneself. To deny ... More
2. Background

2. Background  

Roger Scruton

in Spinoza: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775758
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803160.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803160
Spinoza did not think in a historical vacuum or without reference to conceptions whose meaning has clouded with time and whose plausibility is no longer obvious. ‘Background’ looks at what ... More
2. The background of Kant's thought

2. The background of Kant's thought  

Roger Scruton

in Kant: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775482
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192801999.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192801999
The Critique of Pure Reason is the most important work of philosophy written in modern times. ‘The background of Kant's thought’ presents, with as few technicalities as possible, an ... More
6. Beauty and design

6. Beauty and design  

Roger Scruton

in Kant: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775482
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192801999.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192801999
Kant's writings on religion show an attempt at the systematic demystification of theology. ‘Beauty and design’ analyses Kant's writings on religion and touches upon Kant's aesthetics. An ... More
2. Becoming an individual

2. Becoming an individual  

Thomas Flynn

in Existentialism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2006
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775932
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192804280.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192804280
‘Becoming an individual’ looks at the influence of Kierkegaard and Nietzsche on existentialism's approach to the individual. Kierkegaard described three stages for the individual: the ... More
3. Being

3. Being  

Michael Inwood

in Heidegger: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2019
Published Online: 
Jan 2019
eISBN: 
9780191867095
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198828662.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198828662
‘Being’ describes the importance that Heidegger ascribed to considering the nature of an object, or its Being, before addressing knowledge of it. Whereas other philosophers, including ... More
6. The best of all possible worlds and Leibniz’s theodicy

6. The best of all possible worlds and Leibniz’s theodicy  

Maria Rosa Antognazza

in Leibniz: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191788079
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198718642.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198718642
‘The best of all possible worlds and Leibniz’s theodicy’ explains that Leibniz’s claim that the world we live in is ‘the best of all possible worlds’ is deceptively simple, but based on ... More
3. Bettering the human condition

3. Bettering the human condition  

John Robertson

in The Enlightenment: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2015
Published Online: 
Sep 2015
eISBN: 
9780191782411
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199591787.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199591787
‘Bettering the human condition’ explores human betterment in the 18th century’s moral philosophy, history, and political economy. The greatest originality of Enlightenment thought is found ... More
3. Bodies and Selves

3. Bodies and Selves  

A. J. Ayer

in Hume: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776601
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854063.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854063
Do bodies and selves exist separate from our perceptions? ‘Bodies and Selves’ explores Hume's belief that perceptions are connected to external objects and that denying this is ... More
16. Body

16. Body  

Tom Sorell

in Descartes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776632
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854094.003.0016
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854094
Just as Descartes conceived the mind without attributes involving a body as complete, so a conception of body that omits all properties dependent on a mind was also considered complete. ... More
6. The body politic

6. The body politic  

Roger Scruton

in Spinoza: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775758
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803160.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803160
Spinoza described the free man who has mastered his passions and lives at high levels of cognition, reaching an understanding of himself and the world. But this is an abstract idea. Real ... More

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