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5. The anomalies explained

5. The anomalies explained  

John Finney

in Water: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2015
Published Online: 
Aug 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785597
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198708728.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198708728
‘The anomalies explained’ considers why water behaves differently from most other liquids and why this is so important chemically, biologically, and environmentally. Ice contracts on ... More
3. Bridging matter

3. Bridging matter  

Peter Atkins

in Physical Chemistry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2014
Published Online: 
Apr 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779633
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199689095.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199689095
‘Bridging matter’ introduces statistical thermodynamics, which provides the link between the notional insides and outsides of atoms and molecules. It identifies the bulk properties of a ... More
6. Changing the identity of matter

6. Changing the identity of matter  

Peter Atkins

in Physical Chemistry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2014
Published Online: 
Apr 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779633
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199689095.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199689095
A great deal of chemistry is concerned with changing the identity of matter by the deployment of chemical reactions. Physical chemists are interested in a variety of aspects of chemical ... More
5. Changing the state of matter

5. Changing the state of matter  

Peter Atkins

in Physical Chemistry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2014
Published Online: 
Apr 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779633
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199689095.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199689095
‘Changing the state of matter’ considers the transformations states of matter undergo from one form to another during the processes of freezing, boiling, dissolving, and mixing. All such ... More
Conclusion

Conclusion  

Peter Atkins

in The Laws of Thermodynamics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777608
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199572199.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199572199
We are at the end of our journey. We have seen that thermodynamics, the study of the transformations of energy, is a subject of great breadth and underlies and elucidates many of the most ... More
2. The first lawThe conservation of energy

2. The first law: The conservation of energy  

Peter Atkins

in The Laws of Thermodynamics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777608
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199572199.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199572199
The first law of thermodynamics is an extension of the law of conservation of energy, expressed in terms of the internal energy of a closed system relative to the heat supplied to it and ... More
4. Free energyThe availability of work

4. Free energy: The availability of work  

Peter Atkins

in The Laws of Thermodynamics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777608
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199572199.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199572199
Free energy can be defined as the energy within a system that is free to do work rather than escape from the system as heat. ‘Free energy’ defines and explains the terms free energy, ... More
7. Investigating matter

7. Investigating matter  

Peter Atkins

in Physical Chemistry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2014
Published Online: 
Apr 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779633
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199689095.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199689095
Physical chemistry lies at the heart of one of chemistry's principal applications and achievements: the identification of the substances present in a sample and the determination of their ... More
1. Matter from the inside

1. Matter from the inside  

Peter Atkins

in Physical Chemistry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2014
Published Online: 
Apr 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779633
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199689095.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199689095
‘Matter from the inside’ shows that one way to understand how a physical chemist thinks and contributes to chemistry is to start at the atom's interior and then travel out into the world of ... More
2. Matter from the outside

2. Matter from the outside  

Peter Atkins

in Physical Chemistry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2014
Published Online: 
Apr 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779633
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199689095.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199689095
‘Matter from the outside’ focuses on the applications of thermodynamics in physical chemistry. Thermodynamics is the science of energy and the transformations that it can undergo. It plays ... More
3. The second lawThe increase in entropy

3. The second law: The increase in entropy  

Peter Atkins

in The Laws of Thermodynamics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777608
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199572199.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199572199
The second law of thermodynamics introduces the concept of entropy: a measure of the disorder, or the quality of energy, that a system possesses. The law itself states that the entropy of ... More
7. Some past and current controversies

7. Some past and current controversies  

John Finney

in Water: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2015
Published Online: 
Aug 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785597
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198708728.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198708728
The structure, dynamics, and properties of water are pretty well understood. We have a good idea of its structure, and how that structure explains why its properties are sometimes different ... More
4. States of matter

4. States of matter  

Peter Atkins

in Physical Chemistry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2014
Published Online: 
Apr 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779633
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199689095.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199689095
‘States of matter’ describes the three traditional states — gas, liquid, and solid — and the models used to predict and understand their behaviour. The van der Waals equation of state ... More
5. The third lawThe unattainability of zero

5. The third law: The unattainability of zero  

Peter Atkins

in The Laws of Thermodynamics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777608
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199572199.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199572199
Although the third law of thermodynamics does not have the same practical implications as the first two, it does make possible their application. ‘The third law’ examines how considerations ... More
6. Water as a biomolecule

6. Water as a biomolecule  

John Finney

in Water: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2015
Published Online: 
Aug 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785597
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198708728.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198708728
Why is water biologically important? ‘Water as a biomolecule’ considers how water influences biological processes and what properties of the water molecule enable it to do so by focusing on ... More
4. Water as a liquid—and as glass(es)

4. Water as a liquid—and as glass(es)  

John Finney

in Water: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2015
Published Online: 
Aug 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785597
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198708728.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198708728
For a liquid to flow, the molecules must move. So can a liquid have a structure? ‘Water as a liquid—and as glass(es)’ illustrates that it can; under normal temperature and pressure ... More
3. Water as ice(s)

3. Water as ice(s)  

John Finney

in Water: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2015
Published Online: 
Aug 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785597
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198708728.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198708728
‘Water as ice(s)’ describes the sixteen known crystalline phases of ice, starting with normal ice, as well as a potential seventeenth phase called cubic ice, for which they may be evidence ... More
2. The water molecule and its interactions

2. The water molecule and its interactions  

John Finney

in Water: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2015
Published Online: 
Aug 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785597
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198708728.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198708728
‘The water molecule and its interactions’ discusses the structural and electrical properties of the water molecule. A water molecule is made up of two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent ... More
1. Water, water everywhere …

1. Water, water everywhere …  

John Finney

in Water: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2015
Published Online: 
Aug 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785597
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198708728.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198708728
Water (H2O) is the most abundant compound on the Earth’s surface and occurs naturally in gas, liquid, and solid forms. It is estimated that there are 1.9 billion billion tonnes of water on ... More
1. The zeroth lawThe concept of temperature

1. The zeroth law: The concept of temperature  

Peter Atkins

in The Laws of Thermodynamics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777608
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199572199.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199572199
The zeroth law can be most simply stated as: ‘If A is in thermal equilibrium with B, and B is in thermal equilibrium with C, then C will be in thermal equilibrium with A.’ ‘The zeroth law’ ... More

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