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5. Adaptation and natural selection

5. Adaptation and natural selection  

Brian Charlesworth and Deborah Charlesworth

in Evolution: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jun 2017
eISBN: 
9780191842719
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198804369.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198804369
The biological explanation of the origin of adaptation replaces the idea of a Designer, and is central to post-Darwinian evolutionary biology. ‘Adaptation and natural selection’ describes ... More
8. Afterword

8. Afterword  

Brian Charlesworth and Deborah Charlesworth

in Evolution: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jun 2017
eISBN: 
9780191842719
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198804369.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198804369
The ‘Afterword’ provides a brief summary and concludes that our modern view of evolution is remarkably close to that of Wallace and Darwin. The chief difference is that two advances mean ... More
1. All creatures great and small

1. All creatures great and small  

James Yeates

in Veterinary Science: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2018
Published Online: 
Feb 2018
eISBN: 
9780191833366
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198790969.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198790969
‘All creatures great and small’ provides an abridged history of veterinary science, which helps highlight how veterinary scientific developments have progressed alongside other scientific ... More
2. Ancient reefs and islands

2. Ancient reefs and islands  

Charles Sheppard

in Coral Reefs: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2021
Published Online: 
Apr 2021
eISBN: 
9780191912474
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198869825.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198869825
Reefs in deep geological time have been built by a succession of different kinds of life: plant, bacterial, and animal. Stromatolites and bryozoans were major reef-builders that persist ... More
2. Animal phyla

2. Animal phyla  

Peter Holland

in The Animal Kingdom: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778049
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199593217.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199593217
The large branches within the Animal Kingdom evolutionary tree are ‘phyla’ (the singular being ‘phylum’). ‘Animal phyla’ outlines thirty three phyla, although there are still disputes and ... More
7. Antibiotic resistance

7. Antibiotic resistance  

Sebastian G.B. Amyes

in Bacteria: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777752
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199578764.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199578764
Ever since the introduction of antibiotics, bacterial resistance has been an issue. Resistance now severely threatens the future use of antibiotics in hospitals. ‘Antibiotic resistance’ ... More
6. Antibiotics

6. Antibiotics  

Sebastian G.B. Amyes

in Bacteria: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777752
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199578764.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199578764
‘Antibiotics’ charts the work on the understanding and treatment of bacterial infections from the improvements of hygiene proposed by Florence Nightingale and Joseph Lister's antiseptics to ... More
6. Appetite, fat, and obesity

6. Appetite, fat, and obesity  

Martin Luck

in Hormones: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2014
Published Online: 
Jul 2014
eISBN: 
9780191780011
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672875.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672875
‘Appetite, fat, and obesity’ considers the role of insulin in the body’s fat storage process. In the condition diabetes mellitus, the sugar level in the blood rises uncontrollably so the ... More
6. Applied ecology

6. Applied ecology  

Jaboury Ghazoul

in Ecology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2020
Published Online: 
Aug 2020
eISBN: 
9780191869013
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198831013.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198831013
‘Applied ecology’ looks at the application of ecological theories in modelling renewable resources and population dynamics, particularly in relation to species we wish to control or ... More
8. Applying behaviour

8. Applying behaviour  

Tristram D. Wyatt

in Animal Behaviour: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2017
Published Online: 
Feb 2017
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198712152.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
Our behaviour as humans has profound effects on the lives of other animals. ‘Applying behaviour’ explores some of the ways that we can use an understanding of animal behaviour to reduce our ... More
8. Aquatic mammals

8. Aquatic mammals  

T. S. Kemp

in Mammals: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2017
Published Online: 
Sep 2017
eISBN: 
9780191821172
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198766940.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198766940
Virtually all mammals can swim at least sufficiently well to cross bodies of water, but the extent of specific adaptation for aquatic life varies amongst different mammals from no more than ... More
3. The architects of a reef

3. The architects of a reef  

Charles Sheppard

in Coral Reefs: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2021
Published Online: 
Apr 2021
eISBN: 
9780191912474
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198869825.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198869825
Coral reefs are tropical ecosystems but show global patterns. The Caribbean has about 60 reef-building coral species, while Southeast Asia has nearly 1,000, this number broadly diminishing ... More
1. Are you who you say you are?

1. Are you who you say you are?  

Michael Fairhurst

in Biometrics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2018
Published Online: 
Nov 2018
eISBN: 
9780191846731
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198809104.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198809104
Many aspects of modern life raise questions about individual identity: how we prove that we are who we say we are, and how we can be sure that another person is who he or she claims to be. ... More
5. Bacterial pathogenesis

5. Bacterial pathogenesis  

Sebastian G.B. Amyes

in Bacteria: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777752
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199578764.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199578764
‘Bacterial pathogenesis’ explains the stages of pathogenesis, virulence factors, the four groups of pathogenic bacteria (adhesins, aggressins, impedins, and invasins), plasmids, and ... More
4. Basal animals: sponges, corals, and jellyfish

4. Basal animals: sponges, corals, and jellyfish  

Peter Holland

in The Animal Kingdom: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778049
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199593217.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199593217
‘Basal animals: sponges, corals, and jellyfish’ describes the four non-bilaterian phyla — Porifera (sponges), Cnidaria (sea anemones, corals, and jellyfish), Ctenophora (comb jellies), and ... More
5. The bilaterians: building a body

5. The bilaterians: building a body  

Peter Holland

in The Animal Kingdom: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778049
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199593217.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199593217
Most animals are Bilateria. ‘The bilaterians: building a body’ explains that Bilaterians have ‘bilateral symmetry’, meaning they have a single line of mirror-image symmetry running down the ... More
1. Biological diversity and the geography of nature

1. Biological diversity and the geography of nature  

Mark V. Lomolino

in Biogeography: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2020
Published Online: 
Jul 2020
eISBN: 
9780191884504
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198850069.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198850069
Throughout history, insights into understanding the diversity of life forms have come from placing natural phenomena within an explicit geographic context. “Biological diversity and the ... More
2. The biology of mammals

2. The biology of mammals  

T. S. Kemp

in Mammals: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2017
Published Online: 
Sep 2017
eISBN: 
9780191821172
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198766940.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198766940
In order to understand mammals and their amazing variety, we must first learn about their shared biology. ‘The biology of mammals’ first considers how and why mammals stay warm and active. ... More
1. Biology: from analysis to synthesis

1. Biology: from analysis to synthesis  

Jamie A. Davies

in Synthetic Biology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2018
Published Online: 
Jul 2018
eISBN: 
9780191841699
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198803492.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198803492
Synthetic biology—the creation of new living systems by design—is a rapidly growing area of science and technology that is attracting attention well beyond the laboratory and is provoking ... More
2. Biometrics: where should I start?

2. Biometrics: where should I start?  

Michael Fairhurst

in Biometrics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2018
Published Online: 
Nov 2018
eISBN: 
9780191846731
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198809104.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198809104
‘Biometrics: where should I start?’ considers what constitutes a practical biometric system. It looks at the principles on which such a system operates, builds up a picture of the ... More

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