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5. Blood pressure and blood flow

5. Blood pressure and blood flow  

Chris Cooper

in Blood: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Sep 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785467
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199581450.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199581450
The heart is the organ that pumps blood around the body. If the heart stops functioning, blood does not flow. The driving force for this flow is the pressure difference between the arterial ... More
6. Blood transfusion

6. Blood transfusion  

Chris Cooper

in Blood: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Sep 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785467
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199581450.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199581450
‘Blood transfusion’ outlines the history of transfusing animal blood dating back to the 17th century. The 19th century saw the first successful human blood transfusion, but two major issues ... More
1. Circadian rhythmsA 24-hour phenomenon

1. Circadian rhythms: A 24-hour phenomenon  

Russell G. Foster and Leon Kreitzman

in Circadian Rhythms: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191787164
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198717683.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198717683
‘Circadian rhythms: A 24-hour phenomenon’ explains the internally generated ‘clock’ that almost all living beings on Earth possess, which allows them to optimize a vast array of ... More
7. Circadian rhythms and metabolism

7. Circadian rhythms and metabolism  

Russell G. Foster and Leon Kreitzman

in Circadian Rhythms: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191787164
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198717683.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198717683
Life is a continual battle to stay in a non-equilibrium energy state. Living things must obtain energy from the environment and effectively use it to drive metabolic reactions. ‘Circadian ... More
6. Colour

6. Colour  

Michael Land

in The Eye: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2014
Published Online: 
May 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779961
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199680306.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199680306
‘Colour’ explains that colour is a construct of the brain, based on information supplied by the eyes. Objects in the world reflect different wavelengths of light to different extents, and ... More
7. Epilogue: the future of blood

7. Epilogue: the future of blood  

Chris Cooper

in Blood: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Sep 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785467
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199581450.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199581450
For a long time, synthetic biologists have attempted to manufacture an artificial, easily stored and transported, blood substitute that does not require blood typing, is long lasting, and ... More
9. Evolution and another look at the clock

9. Evolution and another look at the clock  

Russell G. Foster and Leon Kreitzman

in Circadian Rhythms: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191787164
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198717683.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198717683
‘Evolution and another look at the clock’ concludes that the circadian system controls every key aspect of biochemistry, physiology, and behaviour. All plants, fungi, protista, algae, ... More
3. Fighting disease

3. Fighting disease  

Chris Cooper

in Blood: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Sep 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785467
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199581450.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199581450
‘Fighting disease’ looks at how the immune system and vaccination work. It considers the scientific studies of Louis Pasteur, late in the 19th century, who brilliantly expanded on the work ... More
1. The first eyes

1. The first eyes  

Michael Land

in The Eye: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2014
Published Online: 
May 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779961
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199680306.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199680306
The evolution of eyes started slowly in the Precambrian and then took off during the Cambrian period, between 541 and 485 million years ago. ‘The first eyes’ describes the first step in ... More
4. Haemoglobin

4. Haemoglobin  

Chris Cooper

in Blood: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Sep 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785467
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199581450.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199581450
‘Haemoglobin’ explains the key role played by this protein: binding oxygen in the lungs and carrying it around the blood circulation, where it is offloaded to every cell in the body. ... More
1. A history of blood

1. A history of blood  

Chris Cooper

in Blood: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Sep 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785467
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199581450.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199581450
‘A history of blood’ considers why the colour red and blood hold such pre-eminence in human language and culture. Views about what function blood actually performed in the body have varied ... More
3. The human eye

3. The human eye  

Michael Land

in The Eye: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2014
Published Online: 
May 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779961
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199680306.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199680306
‘The human eye’ describes the optical system of the human eye and the important role the cornea plays in image formation. The lens adjusts the optical system's power to focus on objects at ... More
2. Making better eyes

2. Making better eyes  

Michael Land

in The Eye: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2014
Published Online: 
May 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779961
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199680306.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199680306
‘Making better eyes’ explores some of the difficulties associated with making versatile high-resolution eyes, and how these problems have been overcome. Advanced eyes need to produce a well ... More
4. The moving eye

4. The moving eye  

Michael Land

in The Eye: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2014
Published Online: 
May 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779961
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199680306.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199680306
Why does our eye movement system not allow gaze to move continuously? ‘The moving eye’ describes how information is taken in during fixations and how saccades move the eyes as fast as ... More
8. Seasons of life

8. Seasons of life  

Russell G. Foster and Leon Kreitzman

in Circadian Rhythms: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191787164
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198717683.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198717683
With each season there are changes in day length, wind speed and direction, temperature, and rainfall, which dictate the optimal times for plants and animals to initiate growth, ... More
7. Seeing and the brain

7. Seeing and the brain  

Michael Land

in The Eye: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2014
Published Online: 
May 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779961
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199680306.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199680306
About 27 per cent of the human brain cortex is predominantly visual in function, but there are many other areas that are involved less exclusively in visual processing. ‘Seeing and the ... More
4. Shedding light on the clock

4. Shedding light on the clock  

Russell G. Foster and Leon Kreitzman

in Circadian Rhythms: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191787164
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198717683.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198717683
Most circadian clocks make use of a sun-based mechanism as the primary entraining signal to lock the internal day to the astronomical day. For nearly four billion years, dawn and dusk has ... More
6. SleepThe most obvious 24-hour rhythm

6. Sleep: The most obvious 24-hour rhythm  

Russell G. Foster and Leon Kreitzman

in Circadian Rhythms: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191787164
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198717683.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198717683
Almost all life shows a 24-hour pattern of activity and rest, as we live on a planet that revolves once every 24 hours, causing profound changes in light, temperature, and food ... More
5. The third dimension

5. The third dimension  

Michael Land

in The Eye: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2014
Published Online: 
May 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779961
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199680306.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199680306
Each retina has a two-dimensional image of the world. ‘The third dimension’ explains how distance is perceived using binocular stereopsis, which deals with retinal disparity, and monocular ... More
5. The tick-tock of the molecular clock

5. The tick-tock of the molecular clock  

Russell G. Foster and Leon Kreitzman

in Circadian Rhythms: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191787164
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198717683.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198717683
Circadian clocks in animals and plants arise from multiple and interconnected transcription–translation feedback loops that ensure the proper oscillation of thousands of genes in a ... More

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