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3. Adaptive immunity: a voyage of (non-)self-discovery

3. Adaptive immunity: a voyage of (non-)self-discovery  

Paul Klenerman

in The Immune System: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2017
Published Online: 
Nov 2017
eISBN: 
9780191815706
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198753902.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198753902
How does the immune system respond to such diverse threats, including viruses never encountered previously by us as a species? The inherent diversity in the immune system can be explained ... More
1. Adolescence as a life stage

1. Adolescence as a life stage  

Peter K. Smith

in Adolescence: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2016
Published Online: 
May 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785245
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199665563.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199665563
Adolescence is a period of transition between life as a child and life as an adult. The World Health Organization defines it as from ages 10 to 19. Biologically, entrance into adolescence ... More
6. Alternative and complementary approaches to cancer care

6. Alternative and complementary approaches to cancer care  

Nicholas James

in Cancer: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777424
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199560233.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199560233
At least half of cancer patients use complementary or alternative medicines. ‘Alternative and complementary approaches to cancer care’ examines some of the very many different therapies ... More
9. Anaesthesia tomorrow

9. Anaesthesia tomorrow  

Aidan O’Donnell

in Anaesthesia: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777868
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199584543.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199584543
Anaesthesia is evolving, so predictions about the future are hard to make. Three trends seem highly likely to result in changes in practice: understanding brain function, more intensive ... More
5. Anaesthetic drugs and fluids

5. Anaesthetic drugs and fluids  

Aidan O’Donnell

in Anaesthesia: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777868
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199584543.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199584543
‘Anaesthic drugs and fluids’ looks at anaesthetic gases, such as nitrous oxide, which are used as an anaesthetic agent, intravenous induction agents, muscle-relaxant drugs, analgesics, and ... More
6. Appetite, fat, and obesity

6. Appetite, fat, and obesity  

Martin Luck

in Hormones: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2014
Published Online: 
Jul 2014
eISBN: 
9780191780011
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672875.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672875
‘Appetite, fat, and obesity’ considers the role of insulin in the body’s fat storage process. In the condition diabetes mellitus, the sugar level in the blood rises uncontrollably so the ... More
2. Asylums and the origins of psychiatry

2. Asylums and the origins of psychiatry  

Tom Burns

in Psychiatry: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2018
Published Online: 
Oct 2018
eISBN: 
9780191865145
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198826200.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198826200
‘Asylums and the origins of psychiatry’ outlines the historical care of the mentally ill. If the mentally deranged could not be cared for within the family, they were sent to private ... More
7. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

7. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis  

Marta L. Wayne and Benjamin M. Bolker

in Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785276
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688937.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688937
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a fungal pathogen that infects many different amphibian species, driving some of them to extinction. ‘Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis’ ... More
4. Bells and whistles

4. Bells and whistles  

Aidan O’Donnell

in Anaesthesia: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777868
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199584543.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199584543
What equipment does the anaesthetist need? ‘Bells and whistles’ demonstrates methods of maintaining the airway during anaesthesia and describes the anaesthetic machine. The most basic ... More
3. Big impacts: the Black Death

3. Big impacts: the Black Death  

Paul Slack

in Plague: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777998
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199589548.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199589548
‘Big impacts: the Black Death’ explains how the contention that major epidemic disasters changed the course of historical events — the ‘Great Disaster’ interpretations of history — leaves ... More
9. Big issues and major challenges

9. Big issues and major challenges  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
Unless something dramatic happens, the AIDS epidemic will be under control across the world by 2022. The number of new infections will continue to fall; there will be virtually no vertical ... More
5. Blood pressure and blood flow

5. Blood pressure and blood flow  

Chris Cooper

in Blood: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Sep 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785467
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199581450.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199581450
The heart is the organ that pumps blood around the body. If the heart stops functioning, blood does not flow. The driving force for this flow is the pressure difference between the arterial ... More
6. Blood transfusion

6. Blood transfusion  

Chris Cooper

in Blood: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Sep 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785467
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199581450.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199581450
‘Blood transfusion’ outlines the history of transfusing animal blood dating back to the 17th century. The 19th century saw the first successful human blood transfusion, but two major issues ... More
4. Cancer research

4. Cancer research  

Nicholas James

in Cancer: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777424
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199560233.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199560233
The mainstays of cancer treatment have been surgery and radiotherapy. Both of these techniques have seen incremental technical improvements since they were introduced in the ... More
9. Changing perspectives

9. Changing perspectives  

Martin Luck

in Hormones: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2014
Published Online: 
Jul 2014
eISBN: 
9780191780011
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672875.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672875
It is now more realistic to see hormones as a collection of biologically active chemicals, each of which just happens to cause one cell to change its behaviour in response to another, ... More
4. Cholera

4. Cholera  

Christian W. McMillen

in Pandemics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780190625214
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199340071.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199340071
Cholera is caused by ingesting water contaminated with infected fecal matter. The disease spreads easily. Seven cholera pandemics have traveled the globe, the first starting in India in ... More
5. Cholera

5. Cholera  

Marta L. Wayne and Benjamin M. Bolker

in Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785276
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688937.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688937
Cholera is a water-borne, diarrhoeal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. For illness to occur, humans must consume vast amounts of the bacteria and cholera must possess a ... More
4. Communication and control

4. Communication and control  

Leslie Klenerman

in Human Anatomy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2015
Published Online: 
Feb 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785474
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198707370.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198707370
‘Communication and control’ considers the human nervous system, which has two anatomically separate, but closely related, components: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral ... More
2. Current challenges

2. Current challenges  

Virginia Berridge

in Public Health: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2016
Published Online: 
Jul 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785481
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688463.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688463
What is the overall context within which public health is operating? What has been happening to the health of the public? ‘Current challenges’ considers the many challenges facing public ... More
1. The development of anatomy

1. The development of anatomy  

Leslie Klenerman

in Human Anatomy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2015
Published Online: 
Feb 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785474
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198707370.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198707370
‘The development of anatomy’ provides a short history of anatomical study beginning with Aristotle (384–322 bc) who named the subject anatome, meaning ‘cutting up’. Herophilus of Chalcedon ... More

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