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9. Big issues and major challenges

9. Big issues and major challenges  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
Unless something dramatic happens, the AIDS epidemic will be under control across the world by 2022. The number of new infections will continue to fall; there will be virtually no vertical ... More
4. Cholera

4. Cholera  

Christian W. McMillen

in Pandemics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780190625214
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199340071.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199340071
Cholera is caused by ingesting water contaminated with infected fecal matter. The disease spreads easily. Seven cholera pandemics have traveled the globe, the first starting in India in ... More
2. Current challenges

2. Current challenges  

Virginia Berridge

in Public Health: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2016
Published Online: 
Jul 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785481
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688463.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688463
What is the overall context within which public health is operating? What has been happening to the health of the public? ‘Current challenges’ considers the many challenges facing public ... More
6. Development, numbers, and politics

6. Development, numbers, and politics  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
‘Development, numbers, and politics’ first considers the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set by the United Nations in 2000 and explains how achieving some of them was difficult due to ... More
1. The emergence and state of the HIV and AIDS epidemic

1. The emergence and state of the HIV and AIDS epidemic  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
‘The emergence and state of the HIV and AIDS epidemic’ outlines the emergence of HIV/AIDS, charting the current state of the disease globally. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is ... More
10. Epidemiology between ethics and politics

10. Epidemiology between ethics and politics  

Rodolfo Saracci

in Epidemiology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777257
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199543335.003.0010
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199543335
Epidemiological studies pose ethical problems, particularly concerning the confidentiality of identifiable personal data and the use of stored samples to carry out genetic and other tests. ... More
Epilogue

Epilogue  

Christian W. McMillen

in Pandemics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780190625214
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199340071.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199340071
There will be more pandemics. A pandemic might come from an old, familiar foe such as influenza or might emerge from a new source—a zoonosis that makes its way into humans, perhaps. The ... More
4. Establishing the causes of a disease

4. Establishing the causes of a disease  

Rodolfo Saracci

in Epidemiology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777257
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199543335.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199543335
‘Establishing the causes of a disease’ makes the point that any association between an exposure and a disease that is reasonably well established in a study needs to go through a process of ... More
6. Following up people’s health

6. Following up people’s health  

Rodolfo Saracci

in Epidemiology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777257
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199543335.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199543335
In randomized controlled trials, subjects treated differently are followed up over time to observe the effects of the intervention (treatment). ‘Following up people's health’ points out ... More
9. From epidemiology to medicine, prevention, and public health

9. From epidemiology to medicine, prevention, and public health  

Rodolfo Saracci

in Epidemiology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777257
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199543335.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199543335
Epidemiology is an essential component of all public health activities that implement the organized efforts of society to promote, protect, and restore health. These comprise: clinical ... More
8. Funding the epidemic

8. Funding the epidemic  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
The response to HIV and AIDS has to be funded, whether the emphasis is on prevention, treatment, or both. AIDS is unique in part because of its complex financing. It requires long-term ... More
7. HIV/AIDS

7. HIV/AIDS  

Christian W. McMillen

in Pandemics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780190625214
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199340071.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199340071
HIV/AIDS had been percolating in central Africa since the early twentieth century, but it appeared in its now recognizable form in the spring of 1981. Doctors in America spotted a strange ... More
2. How HIV and AIDS work and scientific responses

2. How HIV and AIDS work and scientific responses  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
‘How HIV and AIDS work and scientific responses’ explains how HIV operates and is transmitted, and how science has progressed in the discovery and delivery of practical treatments and ... More
4. Illness, death, and the demographic impact

4. Illness, death, and the demographic impact  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
‘Illness, death, and the demographic impact’ outlines how the effects of AIDS can be measured through demographic indicators. Demographic consequences of AIDS may include: increased deaths ... More
6. Influenza

6. Influenza  

Christian W. McMillen

in Pandemics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780190625214
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199340071.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199340071
The influenza that swept across the globe in three waves in 1918–1919 was the worst pandemic in history since the Black Death. Pandemic influenza had erupted before—most recently and ... More
Introduction

Introduction  

Christian W. McMillen

in Pandemics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780190625214
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199340071.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199340071
What are pandemics? The National Institutes of Health proposed pandemics must meet eight criteria: wide geographic extension, disease movement, high attack rates and explosiveness, minimal ... More
7. Investigating people’s past experiences

7. Investigating people’s past experiences  

Rodolfo Saracci

in Epidemiology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777257
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199543335.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199543335
The selection of cases is the starting point of case-control studies and obeys the fundamental and rather obvious principle that they should come from the same study population as the ... More
3. Malaria

3. Malaria  

Christian W. McMillen

in Pandemics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780190625214
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199340071.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199340071
Malaria originated in Africa and is caused by an infection with the plasmodium protozoan. Five types have infected humans; Plasmodium falciparum is the most lethal and is responsible for ... More
8. Mapping health and disease

8. Mapping health and disease  

Rodolfo Saracci

in Epidemiology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777257
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199543335.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199543335
Intervention studies and observational studies are known as analytical studies. ‘Mapping health and disease’ emphasizes that these are generally preceded and followed by descriptive studies ... More
2. Measuring health and disease

2. Measuring health and disease  

Rodolfo Saracci

in Epidemiology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777257
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199543335.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199543335
For the purpose of epidemiological study, a disease can be defined either by creating a definition and regarding as cases the subjects that fit it or by accepting as cases those subjects ... More

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