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8. Afterthoughts

8. Afterthoughts  

William Lowrie

in Geophysics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2018
Published Online: 
Mar 2018
eISBN: 
9780191834707
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198792956.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198792956
Geophysics has made many important advances towards understanding the behaviour and properties of planet Earth. Geophysical research continues to make discoveries and developments that ... More
5. Against the odds

5. Against the odds  

Keith Thomson

in Fossils: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776090
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805041.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192805041
‘Against the odds’ describes the processes and conditions of fossil formation, the study of which is termed taphonomy. Fossils represent a tiny fraction of the diversity of life that has ... More
5. Anthropocene

5. Anthropocene  

Tim Lenton

in Earth System Science: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2016
Published Online: 
Feb 2016
eISBN: 
9780191788338
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198718871.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198718871
Could the Earth system be on the brink of another revolutionary change, thanks to human activities? We humans are very recent products of evolution, yet already we are transforming the ... More
5. Anthropos

5. Anthropos  

Erle C. Ellis

in Anthropocene: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2018
Published Online: 
Mar 2018
eISBN: 
9780191834738
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198792987.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198792987
Humans are the ultimate ecosystem engineers. From land clearing using fire, to domesticating other species, and tilling the soil, there is a long, rich, and diachronous history of human ... More
1. The atmosphere

1. The atmosphere  

Storm Dunlop

in Weather: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2017
Published Online: 
Jan 2017
eISBN: 
9780191783357
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199571314.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199571314
‘The atmosphere’ describes the different layers of the atmosphere and the boundaries between them—troposphere, tropopause, stratosphere, mesopause, mesosphere, ionosphere, and ... More
2. Atmosphere and oceans

2. Atmosphere and oceans  

Mark Maslin

in Climate: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778254
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199641130.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199641130
Our weather resides in the atmosphere. It begins on the Earth's surface and becomes thinner the higher it gets. The oceans play a crucial role in controlling weather and climate. ... More
4. Atmospheric composition

4. Atmospheric composition  

Paul I. Palmer

in The Atmosphere: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191788970
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198722038.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198722038
Nitrogen, oxygen, and argon represent more than 99.9% of the air we breathe. But Earth’s atmosphere hasn’t always had that composition—it is on at least its third distinctive atmosphere. ... More
5. Atmospheric measurements

5. Atmospheric measurements  

Paul I. Palmer

in The Atmosphere: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191788970
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198722038.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198722038
Measurements of the atmosphere improve the performance weather forecasts, underpin our understanding of Earth’s changing environment, and help inform climate models that are used to look at ... More
3. Atmospheric motion

3. Atmospheric motion  

Paul I. Palmer

in The Atmosphere: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191788970
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198722038.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198722038
Solar activity is the main driver for Earth’s large-scale atmospheric motion. Due to the Earth’s tilt, lower latitudes receive more energy from the Sun that they emit back to space, while ... More
2. Atmospheric physics

2. Atmospheric physics  

Paul I. Palmer

in The Atmosphere: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191788970
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198722038.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198722038
Earth’s atmosphere is tied closely with the Sun. The Sun emits electromagnetic radiation at a wide range of wavelengths. Radiation is transported through the atmosphere by transmission, ... More
10. Back to the future

10. Back to the future  

Keith Thomson

in Fossils: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776090
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805041.003.0010
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192805041
‘Back to the future’ considers what lies ahead for palaeontology. Improved estimates of the course of diversity change through the Phanerozoic and refined knowledge of the causes of mass ... More
1. The basic idea

1. The basic idea  

Peter Molnar

in Plate Tectonics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2015
Published Online: 
Mar 2015
eISBN: 
9780191794513
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198728269.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198728269
‘The basic idea’ presents the principles of plate tectonics and describes how this revolutionary theory took hold. It begins with Alfred Wegener in 1912, who proposed the concept of ... More
6. The biggest mass extinction

6. The biggest mass extinction  

Michael J. Benton

in The History of Life: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777011
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199226320.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199226320
‘The biggest mass extinction’ discusses the biggest of the five mass extinctions — the end-Permian mass extinction 251 million years ago when up to 96 per cent of species died out. ... More
6. Bringing fossils to life

6. Bringing fossils to life  

Keith Thomson

in Fossils: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776090
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805041.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192805041
‘Bringing fossils to life’ llustrates one ambitious aim of palaeontology: to understand what the fossil organisms were like in life — to reconstruct their appearance, their mechanical and ... More
5. Centres of diversity

5. Centres of diversity  

Martin F. Price

in Mountains: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2015
Published Online: 
Sep 2015
eISBN: 
9780191782466
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199695881.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199695881
‘Centres of diversity’ considers the Earth’s biodiversity hotspots and the benefits derived from this biodiversity. Conservation International has identified thirty-four ‘biodiversity ... More
1. The changing landscape

1. The changing landscape  

Andrew Goudie and Heather Viles

in Landscapes and Geomorphology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777479
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199565573.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199565573
‘The changing landscape’ outlines the three main elements of geomorphology: landforms (such as river valleys, beaches, yardangs), Earth surface processes (exogenic, or ‘outside’ processes, ... More
5. 1840

5. 1840  

Jamie Woodward

in The Ice Age: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2014
Published Online: 
Jan 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779671
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199580699.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199580699
‘1840’ describes the remarkable year when Louis Agassiz came to England to publicise his glacial theory. With new converts, William Buckland and Charles Lyell, Agassiz presented papers on ... More
4. Chemical broth

4. Chemical broth  

Dorrik Stow

in Oceans: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jul 2017
eISBN: 
9780191782428
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199655076.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199655076
‘Chemical broth’ considers ocean chemistry and physics. The Earth is a single unity linked everywhere by oceans and seas. The remarkable properties of the simple water molecule have allowed ... More
2. The circulation of the atmosphere

2. The circulation of the atmosphere  

Storm Dunlop

in Weather: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2017
Published Online: 
Jan 2017
eISBN: 
9780191783357
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199571314.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199571314
‘The circulation of the atmosphere’ outlines the general model of the movement of air around the Earth. There are three circulation cells either side of the equator: the Hadley cell ... More
3. Claiming and negotiating the Antarctic

3. Claiming and negotiating the Antarctic  

Klaus Dodds

in The Antarctic: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778438
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199697687.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199697687
World political divisions are generally easy to define with a few exceptions where there is uncertainty. However, large parts of the Antarctic are claimed by seven states: Argentina, ... More

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