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7. Africa

7. Africa  

Robert C. Allen

in Global Economic History: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778087
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199596652.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199596652
African poverty is not new. Sub-Saharan Africa was the poorest region of the world in 1500, and it remains so despite the increase in income per head that has occurred. ‘Africa’ aims to ... More
6. The Americas

6. The Americas  

Robert C. Allen

in Global Economic History: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778087
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199596652.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199596652
‘The Americas’ illustrates the different development trajectories of North and South America that run back to the colonial period and are rooted in geography and demography. The ... More
4. The ascent of the rich

4. The ascent of the rich  

Robert C. Allen

in Global Economic History: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778087
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199596652.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199596652
‘The ascent of the rich’ shows how the rich countries got richer. Between 1815 and 1870, the Industrial Revolution spread from Britain to Western Europe and North America. Innovation and ... More
7. Auctions

7. Auctions  

Ken Binmore

in Game Theory: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776991
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199218462.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199218462
‘Auctions’ examines the structure of auctions. Mechanism design allows principals to persuade their agents to behave in a certain way through regulations and incentives. Public asset ... More
9. Bargaining and coalitions

9. Bargaining and coalitions  

Ken Binmore

in Game Theory: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776991
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199218462.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199218462
‘Bargaining and coalitions’ investigates cooperative game theory. Cooperative game theory is not the antithesis of noncooperative game theory. It simply assumes that players have solutions ... More
2. Before the welfare state

2. Before the welfare state  

David Garland

in The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191780981
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672660.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672660
Welfare states emerged in western nations at the end of the 19th century and were fully established in the middle decades of the 20th. But collective social provision in one form or another ... More
8. Behaviour in the macroeconomy

8. Behaviour in the macroeconomy  

Michelle Baddeley

in Behavioural Economics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2017
Published Online: 
Jan 2017
eISBN: 
9780191816475
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198754992.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198754992
Behavioural macroeconomics has significant constraints, reflecting the difficulty of bringing together the choices of different people with widely different personality types, moods, and ... More
9. Big Push industrialization

9. Big Push industrialization  

Robert C. Allen

in Global Economic History: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778087
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199596652.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199596652
‘Big Push industrialization’ describes the way some countries were able to grow so fast and catch up with the West in the 20th century. It was by constructing all of the elements of an ... More
3. Birth of the welfare state

3. Birth of the welfare state  

David Garland

in The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191780981
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672660.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672660
‘Birth of the welfare state’ describes the embryonic version of the welfare state in Germany with Chancellor Bismarck’s social insurance laws in the 1880s. A decade later governments in ... More
7. The burden of governance

7. The burden of governance  

Amrita Narlikar

in The World Trade Organization: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776168
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192806086.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192806086
‘The burden of governance’ reflects on the nature of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO has lurched from one crisis to another, and reform is needed for it to remain legitimate. A ... More
4. The central bank and the conduct of monetary policy

4. The central bank and the conduct of monetary policy  

John Goddard and John O. S. Wilson

in Banking: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785320
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688920.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688920
In most countries, the central bank manages the country’s money supply and interest rates. Most central banks hold a monopoly over printing the national currency and have supervisory or ... More
2. Chance

2. Chance  

Ken Binmore

in Game Theory: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776991
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199218462.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199218462
‘Chance’ explores the application of mixed strategies. Mixed strategies involve a player randomizing their choice of pure strategy in order to keep their opponent guessing. This gives rise ... More
1. Choice and desire

1. Choice and desire  

Michael Allingham

in Choice Theory: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775710
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803030.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803030
‘Choice and desire’ explains that choice theory is the exploration of the reasoning which underlies coherent patterns of choice; it explores what it means to act rationally. The format of ... More
7. Combating poverty

7. Combating poverty  

Philip N. Jefferson

in Poverty: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2018
Published Online: 
Jul 2018
eISBN: 
9780191785078
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198716471.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198716471
Although poverty reduction has not occurred as fast as anyone would like, we know a considerable amount about what is helpful in the struggle against poverty. We also know a lot about what ... More
2. Communication and imagination

2. Communication and imagination  

Christopher J. Berry

in Adam Smith: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2018
Published Online: 
Oct 2018
eISBN: 
9780191826962
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198784456.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198784456
In the breadth of his interests and knowledge, Adam Smith was a typical member of the Enlightenment. ‘Communication and imagination’ explains how the arguments in the Moral Sentiments and ... More
3. Communities

3. Communities  

Partha Dasgupta

in Economics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776328
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853455.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853455
‘Communities’ examines the cooperative relationships that exist in different communities. One way of preventing opportunistic behaviour is through linking relationships together. This ... More
5. Conflict and cooperation

5. Conflict and cooperation  

Michael Allingham

in Choice Theory: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775710
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803030.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803030
‘Conflict and cooperation’ considers actions, rational choices, and strategy problems. Strategic choice involves your choosing from actions the outcomes of which depend on my choice as ... More
2. Consumers

2. Consumers  

Avinash Dixit

in Microeconomics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2014
Published Online: 
Apr 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779824
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199689378.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199689378
‘Consumers’ considers several concepts involved with, or influenced by, consumer activity and consumer choice — substitution, complements, demand curves, income effect, statistical ... More
4. Conventions

4. Conventions  

Ken Binmore

in Game Theory: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776991
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199218462.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199218462
‘Convention’ explores the role of conventions in games and society. Conventions may be entirely arbitrary, but are extremely important in society. Humans will invent conventions in ... More
2. The creation of the World Trade Organization

2. The creation of the World Trade Organization  

Amrita Narlikar

in The World Trade Organization: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776168
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192806086.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192806086
‘The creation of the World Trade Organization’ outlines the creation and structure of the World Trade Organization (WTO), which replaced the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in ... More

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