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4. ‘Absolutes’, Simple Natures, and Problems

4. ‘Absolutes’, Simple Natures, and Problems  

Tom Sorell

in Descartes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776632
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854094.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854094
‘Absolutes, Simple Natures and Problems’ deals mainly with the Regulae, an incomplete treatise which anticipated some of the innovations of the Geometry, and which adapted, in outline, some ... More
2. Aims and Methods

2. Aims and Methods  

A. J. Ayer

in Hume: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776601
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854063.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854063
Hume aimed to continue the empirical enquiry begun by Locke to criticise trust in reason and question the nature of causality. ‘Aims and Methods’ discusses Hume's attempts to create a ... More
2. Background

2. Background  

Roger Scruton

in Spinoza: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775758
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803160.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803160
Spinoza did not think in a historical vacuum or without reference to conceptions whose meaning has clouded with time and whose plausibility is no longer obvious. ‘Background’ looks at what ... More
2. The background of Kant's thought

2. The background of Kant's thought  

Roger Scruton

in Kant: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775482
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192801999.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192801999
The Critique of Pure Reason is the most important work of philosophy written in modern times. ‘The background of Kant's thought’ presents, with as few technicalities as possible, an ... More
6. Beauty and design

6. Beauty and design  

Roger Scruton

in Kant: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775482
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192801999.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192801999
Kant's writings on religion show an attempt at the systematic demystification of theology. ‘Beauty and design’ analyses Kant's writings on religion and touches upon Kant's aesthetics. An ... More
6. The best of all possible worlds and Leibniz’s theodicy

6. The best of all possible worlds and Leibniz’s theodicy  

Maria Rosa Antognazza

in Leibniz: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191788079
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198718642.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198718642
‘The best of all possible worlds and Leibniz’s theodicy’ explains that Leibniz’s claim that the world we live in is ‘the best of all possible worlds’ is deceptively simple, but based on ... More
3. Bettering the human condition

3. Bettering the human condition  

John Robertson

in The Enlightenment: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2015
Published Online: 
Sep 2015
eISBN: 
9780191782411
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199591787.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199591787
‘Bettering the human condition’ explores human betterment in the 18th century’s moral philosophy, history, and political economy. The greatest originality of Enlightenment thought is found ... More
3. Bodies and Selves

3. Bodies and Selves  

A. J. Ayer

in Hume: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776601
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854063.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854063
Do bodies and selves exist separate from our perceptions? ‘Bodies and Selves’ explores Hume's belief that perceptions are connected to external objects and that denying this is ... More
16. Body

16. Body  

Tom Sorell

in Descartes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776632
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854094.003.0016
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854094
Just as Descartes conceived the mind without attributes involving a body as complete, so a conception of body that omits all properties dependent on a mind was also considered complete. ... More
6. The body politic

6. The body politic  

Roger Scruton

in Spinoza: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775758
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803160.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803160
Spinoza described the free man who has mastered his passions and lives at high levels of cognition, reaching an understanding of himself and the world. But this is an abstract idea. Real ... More
5. The categorical imperative

5. The categorical imperative  

Roger Scruton

in Kant: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775482
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192801999.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192801999
The Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals which preceded the Critique provides a summary of Kant's moral viewpoint. Both works look at ‘ practical reason’. ‘ The categorical ... More
4. Cause and Effect

4. Cause and Effect  

A. J. Ayer

in Hume: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776601
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854063.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854063
‘Cause and Effect’ considers Hume—s view that the relation of cause and effect supplies the basis for our factual beliefs. Observation leads us to believe in connections between physical ... More
2. Characteristica universalis, logical calculus, and mathematics

2. Characteristica universalis, logical calculus, and mathematics  

Maria Rosa Antognazza

in Leibniz: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191788079
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198718642.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198718642
How did Leibniz propose to pursue his all-embracing programme of scientific advancement? What were the core projects that held his wide-ranging intellectual life together? ‘Characteristica ... More
5. Complete-concept theory, theory of truth, and theory of knowledge

5. Complete-concept theory, theory of truth, and theory of knowledge  

Maria Rosa Antognazza

in Leibniz: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191788079
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198718642.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198718642
Leibniz maintained that the principle of identity/non-contradiction implies that every true predication must have some foundation in the nature of that thing. Otherwise A would not be A. If ... More
Conclusion

Conclusion  

John Dunn

in Locke: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2003
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775888
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803948.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803948
The ‘Conclusion’ reviews the mission of John Locke's philosophy. For Locke, the task of a philosopher was to prove that the truth was independent of human desires and tastes, and that at ... More
20. Descartes’s Ghost

20. Descartes’s Ghost  

Tom Sorell

in Descartes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776632
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854094.003.0020
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854094
‘Descartes's Ghost’ considers his influence. His writings were placed on the Index by the Roman Catholic Church in 1663. Some decades later, Newton's physics superseded Descartes', and ... More
2. The Discovery of a Vocation

2. The Discovery of a Vocation  

Tom Sorell

in Descartes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776632
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854094.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854094
According to ‘The Discovery of a Vocation’, nothing in Descartes' early years pointed to his eventual career. He was educated at a Jesuit college where he showed a special aptitude for ... More
12. Doubt without Scepticism?

12. Doubt without Scepticism?  

Tom Sorell

in Descartes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776632
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854094.003.0012
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854094
The view that enabled Descartes to criticize sense-based beliefs, whilst holding that human beings are capable of physical science, is sometimes called rationalism. Descartes believed human ... More
3. Encyclopaedia, scientia generalis, and the academies of sciences

3. Encyclopaedia, scientia generalis, and the academies of sciences  

Maria Rosa Antognazza

in Leibniz: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191788079
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198718642.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198718642
The characteristica universalis was intended to provide the key instrument of a scientia generalis leading to the development of a new kind of encyclopaedia of all the sciences. ... More
2. Engaging with religion

2. Engaging with religion  

John Robertson

in The Enlightenment: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2015
Published Online: 
Sep 2015
eISBN: 
9780191782411
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199591787.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199591787
It is widely believed that the Enlightenment was hostile to religion, but it is more complicated than that. The Enlightenment can be associated with a spectrum of attitudes towards ... More

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