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2. 1861

2. 1861  

Louis P. Masur

in The U.S. Civil War: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2020
Published Online: 
Nov 2020
eISBN: 
9780197513675
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780197513668.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780197513668
“1861” describes the events of that year, which began with the appointment of Jefferson Davis as president of the Confederacy. Following the Confederate bombardment of Fort Sumter, Lincoln ... More
3. 1862

3. 1862  

Louis P. Masur

in The U.S. Civil War: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2020
Published Online: 
Nov 2020
eISBN: 
9780197513675
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780197513668.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780197513668
“1862” covers the conscription of Confederate soldiers and the emergence of Robert E. Lee, who assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia. Lee won many significant battles against ... More
4. 1863

4. 1863  

Louis P. Masur

in The U.S. Civil War: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2020
Published Online: 
Nov 2020
eISBN: 
9780197513675
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780197513668.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780197513668
“1863” begins with Lincoln’s signing of the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1 . Authorizing the enlistment of black soldiers, the proclamation helped change the Union’s fortunes and ... More
5. 1864

5. 1864  

Louis P. Masur

in The U.S. Civil War: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2020
Published Online: 
Nov 2020
eISBN: 
9780197513675
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780197513668.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780197513668
“1864” demonstrates that the Union defeats across Virginia in that year came at a politically precarious time for Abraham Lincoln, with rivals angling for the Republication presidential ... More
17. ‘A Great Change in Manners’

17. ‘A Great Change in Manners’  

Christopher Harvie and H. C. G. Matthew

in Nineteenth-Century Britain: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776533
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853981.003.0017
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853981
‘A Great Change in Manners‘ draws attention to the remarkable order and balance of British society between the 1850s and 1890s. Despite massive industrial and social change, crime fell in ... More
4. The abolitionist crossroads

4. The abolitionist crossroads  

Richard S. Newman

in Abolitionism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2018
Published Online: 
Aug 2018
eISBN: 
9780190914035
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780190213220.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190213220
After the turbulent 1830s, doubt and discord haunted the antislavery ranks. Facing opposition in the North and South, immediate abolitionists quarrelled not only with their opponents but ... More
5. The abolitionist renaissance and the coming of the Civil War

5. The abolitionist renaissance and the coming of the Civil War  

Richard S. Newman

in Abolitionism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2018
Published Online: 
Aug 2018
eISBN: 
9780190914035
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780190213220.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190213220
Although abolitionists never enjoyed widespread popularity in the United States, they found that northerners were more interested in their critiques of slavery during the 1850s. “The ... More
3. Achievements and challengesThe history the founding fathers made

3. Achievements and challenges: The history the founding fathers made  

R. B. Bernstein

in The Founding Fathers: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2015
Published Online: 
Dec 2015
eISBN: 
9780190273545
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780190273514.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190273514
For seven decades, the founding fathers played pivotal roles in creating an American nation and its constitutional system. “Achievements and challenges: The history the founding fathers ... More
6. Across the ocean: seafaring and overseas expansion

6. Across the ocean: seafaring and overseas expansion  

Julian D. Richards

in The Vikings: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2018
eISBN: 
9780191776151
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192806079.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192806079
What was it about the Vikings and their dragon-headed longships that makes them seem so distinctive in our imagination? Overseas exploits were not exceptional at that time. ‘Across the ... More
1. An Ad Hoc NavyThe Revolutionary War (1775–1783)

1. An Ad Hoc Navy: The Revolutionary War (1775–1783)  

Craig L. Symonds

in American Naval History: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2018
Published Online: 
May 2018
eISBN: 
9780199394777
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199394760.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199394760
‘An ad hoc navy: the Revolutionary War (1775–1783)’ describes the Patriots’ response to the British Royal Navy strongholds in Boston and New York and the role of armed vessels during the ... More
2. The adviser to princes

2. The adviser to princes  

Quentin Skinner

in Machiavelli: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2019
Published Online: 
Jul 2019
eISBN: 
9780191874215
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198837572.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198837572
‘The adviser to princes’ considers The Prince, completed in 1513, but not published until 1532. Machiavelli wrote it partly to recommend himself to the new Medici rulers of Florence. The ... More
8. Aerostats to algorithms 2001–2020

8. Aerostats to algorithms 2001–2020  

Frank Ledwidge

in Aerial Warfare: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2020
Published Online: 
Mar 2020
eISBN: 
9780191842641
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198804314.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198804314
Aircraft and air forces continue to play central roles in conventional battlefields in the early years of the 21st century. However, despite superior Western military power over forces in ... More
6. Æthelred and Cnut: The Decline of the English Monarchy

6. Æthelred and Cnut: The Decline of the English Monarchy  

John Blair

in The Anglo-Saxon Age: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776571
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854032.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854032
The following two reigns after Eadgar would show that there were many limitations to West Saxon kingship of England. Edward ‘the Martyr’ lasted just a short while before being replaced ... More
8. 1945–1968: Affluence and social unrest

8. 1945–1968: Affluence and social unrest  

Paul S. Boyer

in American History: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780199365715
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780195389142.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780195389142
America in the immediate postwar period was a peculiar mix of material abundance and mass-culture distractions. Under the safety net of 1950s America, anti-communist paranoia and disquiet ... More
7. Affluence, depression, and world war, 1920–45

7. Affluence, depression, and world war, 1920–45  

Donald T. Critchlow

in American Political History: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2014
Published Online: 
Feb 2015
eISBN: 
9780199393725
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199340057.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199340057
The quarter-century from 1920 to 1945 proved to be both critical and transformative for American government. Americans witnessed in these twenty-five years an economic boom in the 1920s, a ... More
4. Africa in the world

4. Africa in the world  

John Parker and Richard Rathbone

in African History: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775567
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802484.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802484
How does the history of Africa's past fit into that of the rest of the world? Has Africa's history been determined by internal forces or by those from abroad? ‘Africa in the world’ looks at ... More
3. Africa’s past: historical sources

3. Africa’s past: historical sources  

John Parker and Richard Rathbone

in African History: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775567
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802484.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802484
Historians of Africa face many of the same challenges as historians of other geographical areas. ‘Africa's past: historical sources’ shows how historians of Africa have been pioneers in the ... More
2. Africans: diversity and unity

2. Africans: diversity and unity  

John Parker and Richard Rathbone

in African History: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775567
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802484.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802484
Shifting perceptions of Africa, as well as scholarly debates about the meaning of those perceptions, are about the people. ‘Africans: diversity and unity’ considers the meaning of the term ... More
3. The age of democracy, 1816–44

3. The age of democracy, 1816–44  

Donald T. Critchlow

in American Political History: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2014
Published Online: 
Feb 2015
eISBN: 
9780199393725
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199340057.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199340057
From 1816 to 1844, the United States underwent an economic, political, and social transformation resulting in a nation of twenty-four states and three territories with a population of ... More
4. The age of exploration

4. The age of exploration  

Stewart A. Weaver

in Exploration: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2015
Published Online: 
Jan 2015
eISBN: 
9780199393787
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199946952.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199946952
‘The age of exploration ’ considers why textbooks and teachers privilege late-medieval and early-modern Europe when designating “the age of exploration” and not the earlier Greek, Roman, ... More

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