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2. 1861

2. 1861  

Louis P. Masur

in The U.S. Civil War: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2020
Published Online: 
Nov 2020
eISBN: 
9780197513675
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780197513668.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780197513668
“1861” describes the events of that year, which began with the appointment of Jefferson Davis as president of the Confederacy. Following the Confederate bombardment of Fort Sumter, Lincoln ... More
3. 1862

3. 1862  

Louis P. Masur

in The U.S. Civil War: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2020
Published Online: 
Nov 2020
eISBN: 
9780197513675
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780197513668.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780197513668
“1862” covers the conscription of Confederate soldiers and the emergence of Robert E. Lee, who assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia. Lee won many significant battles against ... More
4. 1863

4. 1863  

Louis P. Masur

in The U.S. Civil War: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2020
Published Online: 
Nov 2020
eISBN: 
9780197513675
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780197513668.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780197513668
“1863” begins with Lincoln’s signing of the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1 . Authorizing the enlistment of black soldiers, the proclamation helped change the Union’s fortunes and ... More
5. 1864

5. 1864  

Louis P. Masur

in The U.S. Civil War: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2020
Published Online: 
Nov 2020
eISBN: 
9780197513675
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780197513668.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780197513668
“1864” demonstrates that the Union defeats across Virginia in that year came at a politically precarious time for Abraham Lincoln, with rivals angling for the Republication presidential ... More
17. ‘A Great Change in Manners’

17. ‘A Great Change in Manners’  

Christopher Harvie and H. C. G. Matthew

in Nineteenth-Century Britain: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776533
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853981.003.0017
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853981
‘A Great Change in Manners‘ draws attention to the remarkable order and balance of British society between the 1850s and 1890s. Despite massive industrial and social change, crime fell in ... More
4. ‘A work of truth’L’Assommoir

4. ‘A work of truth’: L’Assommoir  

Brian Nelson

in Émile Zola: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2020
Published Online: 
Jul 2020
eISBN: 
9780191874208
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198837565.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198837565
‘A work of truth’ looks at the novel L’Assommoir, the first to represent how the workers—the new French industrial proletariat—really lived. The story of Gervaise Macquart, a washerwoman ... More
4. The abolitionist crossroads

4. The abolitionist crossroads  

Richard S. Newman

in Abolitionism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2018
Published Online: 
Aug 2018
eISBN: 
9780190914035
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780190213220.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190213220
After the turbulent 1830s, doubt and discord haunted the antislavery ranks. Facing opposition in the North and South, immediate abolitionists quarrelled not only with their opponents but ... More
5. The abolitionist renaissance and the coming of the Civil War

5. The abolitionist renaissance and the coming of the Civil War  

Richard S. Newman

in Abolitionism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2018
Published Online: 
Aug 2018
eISBN: 
9780190914035
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780190213220.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190213220
Although abolitionists never enjoyed widespread popularity in the United States, they found that northerners were more interested in their critiques of slavery during the 1850s. “The ... More
6. Abortion

6. Abortion  

Damien Keown

in Buddhist Ethics: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2020
Published Online: 
Jun 2020
eISBN: 
9780191884481
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198850052.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198850052
Buddhist attitudes to abortion are influenced by its belief in rebirth and the idea that life is a never-ending continuum. Many Buddhists, accordingly, feel that abortion is prohibited by ... More
4. ‘Absolutes’, Simple Natures, and Problems

4. ‘Absolutes’, Simple Natures, and Problems  

Tom Sorell

in Descartes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776632
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854094.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854094
‘Absolutes, Simple Natures and Problems’ deals mainly with the Regulae, an incomplete treatise which anticipated some of the innovations of the Geometry, and which adapted, in outline, some ... More
5. Absurdism, protest, and commitment

5. Absurdism, protest, and commitment  

Kirsten E. Shepherd-Barr

in Modern Drama: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2016
Published Online: 
Jan 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785269
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199658770.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199658770
The decades 1960–80 witnessed a seismic shift in modern drama. The rage that came to define, and fuel, much of the drama in the 1960s and 1970s is directed at the audience. ‘Absurdism, ... More
3. Achievements and challengesThe history the founding fathers made

3. Achievements and challenges: The history the founding fathers made  

R. B. Bernstein

in The Founding Fathers: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2015
Published Online: 
Dec 2015
eISBN: 
9780190273545
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780190273514.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190273514
For seven decades, the founding fathers played pivotal roles in creating an American nation and its constitutional system. “Achievements and challenges: The history the founding fathers ... More
6. Across the ocean: seafaring and overseas expansion

6. Across the ocean: seafaring and overseas expansion  

Julian D. Richards

in The Vikings: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2018
eISBN: 
9780191776151
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192806079.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192806079
What was it about the Vikings and their dragon-headed longships that makes them seem so distinctive in our imagination? Overseas exploits were not exceptional at that time. ‘Across the ... More
3. Across the world

3. Across the world  

William K. Kay

in Pentecostalism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777677
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199575152.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199575152
‘Across the world’ shows how Pentecostalism expanded globally through missionary agencies and by the planting of self-sustaining congregations adapted to local culture. It was less welcome ... More
1. An Ad Hoc NavyThe Revolutionary War (1775–1783)

1. An Ad Hoc Navy: The Revolutionary War (1775–1783)  

Craig L. Symonds

in American Naval History: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2018
Published Online: 
May 2018
eISBN: 
9780199394777
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199394760.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199394760
‘An ad hoc navy: the Revolutionary War (1775–1783)’ describes the Patriots’ response to the British Royal Navy strongholds in Boston and New York and the role of armed vessels during the ... More
4. Adam and Eve, Hijra, LGBTQs, and the shake-up of gender identities

4. Adam and Eve, Hijra, LGBTQs, and the shake-up of gender identities  

Florian Coulmas

in Identity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2019
Published Online: 
Feb 2019
eISBN: 
9780191867033
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198828549.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198828549
Like race, gender seems to be an immutable element of our identity, while in both cases natural and socio-cultural determinants interact. ‘Adam and Eve, Hijra, LGBTQs, and the shake-up of ... More
2. The adviser to princes

2. The adviser to princes  

Quentin Skinner

in Machiavelli: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2019
Published Online: 
Jul 2019
eISBN: 
9780191874215
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198837572.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198837572
‘The adviser to princes’ considers The Prince, completed in 1513, but not published until 1532. Machiavelli wrote it partly to recommend himself to the new Medici rulers of Florence. The ... More
8. Aerostats to algorithms 2001–2020

8. Aerostats to algorithms 2001–2020  

Frank Ledwidge

in Aerial Warfare: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2020
Published Online: 
Mar 2020
eISBN: 
9780191842641
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198804314.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198804314
Aircraft and air forces continue to play central roles in conventional battlefields in the early years of the 21st century. However, despite superior Western military power over forces in ... More
6. Aesthetics and life

6. Aesthetics and life  

Bence Nanay

in Aesthetics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2019
Published Online: 
Oct 2019
eISBN: 
9780191865633
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198826613.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198826613
‘Aesthetics and life’ considers several questions to show how aesthetics and life are intertwined on all kinds of levels. Should we treat our life as a work of art? Should we become the ... More
5. Aesthetics and the other

5. Aesthetics and the other  

Bence Nanay

in Aesthetics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2019
Published Online: 
Oct 2019
eISBN: 
9780191865633
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198826613.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198826613
‘Aesthetic and the other’ looks at the interpersonal dimension of aesthetics. Aesthetics is rarely a solitary endeavour. We are social beings and there are very few aesthetic situations ... More

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