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5. The first Marxism

5. The first Marxism  

Peter Singer

in Marx: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2018
Published Online: 
Mar 2018
eISBN: 
9780191860652
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198821076.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198821076
Marx had developed two important ideas: that economics is the chief form of human alienation and that the material force needed to liberate humanity from its domination by the capitalist ... More
8. Economics

8. Economics  

Peter Singer

in Marx: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2018
Published Online: 
Mar 2018
eISBN: 
9780191860652
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198821076.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198821076
‘Economics’ considers Marx’s economic theories as outlined in Capital, which he regarded as his masterpiece. Marx believed that the capitalist economic system, regarded by the classical ... More
2. The secularization of conscience

2. The secularization of conscience  

Paul Strohm

in Conscience: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777585
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199569694.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199569694
Conscience was emancipated from institutional religion during the era of the Enlightenment and it is often thought this was due to secularization during that time. Paradoxically, it could ... More
3. Three critics of conscience: Dostoevsky, Nietzsche, Freud

3. Three critics of conscience: Dostoevsky, Nietzsche, Freud  

Paul Strohm

in Conscience: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777585
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199569694.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199569694
Many religious thinkers of the 18th and 19th centuries promulgated a hopeful view of an accessible and socially beneficial conscience. This overly optimistic view of conscience as a source ... More
Seven threats to ethics

Seven threats to ethics  

Simon Blackburn

in Ethics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2003
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775970
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192804426.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192804426
‘Seven threats to ethics’ looks at ideas that destabilize us when we think about standards of choice and conduct: the death of God; relativism; egosim; evolutionary theory; determinism and ... More
The celebrity

The celebrity  

Nicholas Cronk

in Voltaire: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2017
Published Online: 
Feb 2017
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688357.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
Voltaire’s historical enquiry into the nature of religion, as part of a broader concern with the progress of knowledge, puts him at the heart of the Enlightenment endeavour. But it is not ... More
Marx: A Very Short Introduction

Marx: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)  

Peter Singer

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2018
Published Online: 
Mar 2018
eISBN: 
9780191860652
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198821076.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198821076
Karl Marx is one of the most influential philosophers of all time, whose theories have shaped and directed political, economic, and social thought for 150 years. Marx: A Very Short ... More
1. Life and Character

1. Life and Character  

A. J. Ayer

in Hume: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776601
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854063.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854063
David Hume was born in Edinburgh in 1711. He attended the University of Edinburgh by age 12. Aged 23, he resolved to devote his life to philosophy, publishing his first book A Treatise of ... More
The Genevan

The Genevan  

Nicholas Cronk

in Voltaire: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2017
Published Online: 
Feb 2017
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688357.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
In the mid-1750s, Voltaire’s reputation was high: Montesquieu’s death in 1755 left Voltaire as the undisputed leader of the philosophes and Adam Smith spoke of him as a dominant literary ... More
3. Bettering the human condition

3. Bettering the human condition  

John Robertson

in The Enlightenment: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2015
Published Online: 
Sep 2015
eISBN: 
9780191782411
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199591787.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199591787
‘Bettering the human condition’ explores human betterment in the 18th century’s moral philosophy, history, and political economy. The greatest originality of Enlightenment thought is found ... More
5. Artistic beauty

5. Artistic beauty  

Roger Scruton

in Beauty: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777042
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199229758.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199229758
Only in the 19th century, did art replace natural beauty as the core subject-matter of aesthetics. Works of art have a dominant function. They are objects of aesthetic interest. They may ... More
Conscience: A Very Short Introduction

Conscience: A Very Short Introduction  

Paul Strohm

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777585
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199569694.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199569694
Conscience: A Very Short Introduction highlights what the particularly European concept of conscience has meant to successive generations and why it has a reputation as one of ... More
2. Life

2. Life  

Donald Winch

in Malthus: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778360
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199670413.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199670413
‘Life’ explores Malthus's publications and the development of his theories of population. In his first Essay, when dealing with the contribution, as he saw it, of the English Poor Laws to ... More
4. Population: the second Essay

4. Population: the second Essay  

Donald Winch

in Malthus: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778360
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199670413.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199670413
The expanded version of the Essaywas a more mature treatise on morals and politics. ‘Population: the second Essay’ deals with the more important themes to emerge from Malthus's revisions of ... More
1. The enduring idea and changing ideal of the university

1. The enduring idea and changing ideal of the university  

David Palfreyman and Paul Temple

in Universities and Colleges: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2017
Published Online: 
Dec 2017
eISBN: 
9780191820717
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198766131.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198766131
The model for the modern university and college began its long evolution c.1,000 years ago in medieval Western Europe. The ‘12th-century renaissance’ saw the emergence of universities and ... More
Universities and Colleges: A Very Short Introduction

Universities and Colleges: A Very Short Introduction  

David Palfreyman and Paul Temple

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2017
Published Online: 
Dec 2017
eISBN: 
9780191820717
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198766131.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198766131
Exploring the origins, concept, and the idea and ideal of the university and college, Universities and Colleges: A Very Short Introduction discusses one of the world’s oldest, most ... More
Reform and democracy

Reform and democracy  

Robert C. Allen

in The Industrial Revolution: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2017
Published Online: 
Feb 2017
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198706786.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
The Industrial Revolution created social tensions and posed practical problems that shaped the politics of the period, affecting much of social and cultural life. Most commentators analysed ... More

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