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2. Astronomy in antiquity

2. Astronomy in antiquity  

Michael Hoskin

in The History of Astronomy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2003
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775727
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803061.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803061
‘Astronomy in Antiquity’ traces the origins of astronomy, which emerged for different reasons in Egypt and Babylon. In Egypt the far-flung kingdom required a well-established calendar to ... More
6. Paris

6. Paris  

Tom Sorell

in Descartes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776632
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854094.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854094
‘Paris’ describes the period 1626–8 when Descartes was resident there. He must have been aware of the controversies concerning atheism and scepticism that were rife in the city, but ... More
Introduction

Introduction  

Peter Adamson

in Philosophy in the Islamic World: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2015
Published Online: 
Sep 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785429
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199683673.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199683673
The ‘Introduction’ explains that the beginning of philosophy in the Islamic world is seen as lying with a translation movement that began more than 200 years after the age of the Prophet ... More
2. Atomic worlds

2. Atomic worlds  

Catherine Wilson

in Epicureanism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2015
Published Online: 
Dec 2015
eISBN: 
9780191808951
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688326.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688326
In Epicureanism, the ‘atom’ is the fundamental element of reality. There is a finite number of different atom shapes, but an infinite number of each shape, which move and congregate in a ... More
7. Pluralism: is causation many different things?

7. Pluralism: is causation many different things?  

Stephen Mumford and Rani Lill Anjum

in Causation: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2013
Published Online: 
Nov 2013
eISBN: 
9780191779909
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199684434.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199684434
‘Pluralism: is causation many different things?’ proposes that no single theory can explain all cases of causation. Socrates' belief that there is a single essence to something is compared ... More
1. The Man and His Work

1. The Man and His Work  

Jonathan Barnes

in Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Nov 2015
eISBN: 
9780191822322
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854087.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854087
‘The man and his work’ describes Aristotle as a scholar whose scientific explorations were as wide-ranging as his philosophical speculations were profound; a teacher who enchanted and ... More
13. Empiricism

13. Empiricism  

Jonathan Barnes

in Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Nov 2015
eISBN: 
9780191822322
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854087.003.0013
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854087
‘Empiricism’ stresses that, for Aristotle, knowledge or science ultimately derives from perception. That is the source of the concepts in terms of which we seek to understand reality. ... More
17. Teleology

17. Teleology  

Jonathan Barnes

in Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Nov 2015
eISBN: 
9780191822322
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854087.003.0017
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854087
Aristotle had a teleological view of nature. Natural behaviour and natural structure usually have final causes, but these are constrained by necessity: nature does the best she can ‘in the ... More
20. Afterlife

20. Afterlife  

Jonathan Barnes

in Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Nov 2015
eISBN: 
9780191822322
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854087.003.0020
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854087
‘Afterlife’ argues that an account of Aristotle’s intellectual legacy would amount to a history of European thought. Aristotle’s various doctrines and beliefs were accepted and taught as ... More
9. A New ‘Logic’

9. A New ‘Logic’  

Tom Sorell

in Descartes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776632
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854094.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854094
‘A New Logic’ points out that the Dioptrics, Meteors, and Geometry were not free-standing treatises but advertisements for a novel method of reasoning in the sciences. The Discourse on ... More
8. Three Specimens of a Method

8. Three Specimens of a Method  

Tom Sorell

in Descartes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776632
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854094.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854094
‘Three Specimens of a Method’ discusses three essays: Dioptrics, Meteors, and Geometry, published, together with the Discourse on Methods, in 1637. The literary form of the Discourse and ... More
10. Reality

10. Reality  

Jonathan Barnes

in Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Nov 2015
eISBN: 
9780191822322
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854087.003.0010
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854087
Science is about real things. That is what makes it knowledge rather than fantasy. But what things are real? What are the fundamental items with which science is concerned? That is the ... More
11. Change

11. Change  

Jonathan Barnes

in Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Nov 2015
eISBN: 
9780191822322
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854087.003.0011
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854087
Unlike Plato’s Forms, which are eternal and unchanging, Aristotle’s substances are temporary and undergo alterations. Aristotle considered there to be four types of change: in respect of ... More
12. Causes

12. Causes  

Jonathan Barnes

in Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Nov 2015
eISBN: 
9780191822322
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854087.003.0012
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854087
Material objects change, and their changes are caused. The scientist’s world is full of causes, and scientific knowledge requires the capacity to state causes and to give explanations. We ... More
19. The Arts

19. The Arts  

Jonathan Barnes

in Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Nov 2015
eISBN: 
9780191822322
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854087.003.0019
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854087
The Poetics consists largely of the theory and criticism of tragic drama. Aristotle, however, saw the work as a contribution to ‘productive’ science, telling us how to produce ... More
7. Logic

7. Logic  

Jonathan Barnes

in Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Nov 2015
eISBN: 
9780191822322
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854087.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854087
‘Logic’ explores Aristotle’s syllogistic. In the Prior Analytics Aristotle uses ‘proposition’ for simple sentences and ‘term’ for their salient parts. Thus a proposition affirms or denies ... More
9. Ideal and Achievement

9. Ideal and Achievement  

Jonathan Barnes

in Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Nov 2015
eISBN: 
9780191822322
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854087.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854087
Some scholars have disputed that Aristotle was a system-builder. For them, Aristotle’s philosophy is ‘aporetic’: it consists in posing, and developing solutions to, particular puzzles. This ... More
2. The Classical Greeks: How to be a Citizen

2. The Classical Greeks: How to be a Citizen  

Kenneth Minogue

in Politics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776472
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853882.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853882
‘The Classical Greeks’ examines the structure of Greek politics and discusses the views of Socrates, Aristotle, Plato, Thucidides, and Solon. The concepts of citizenship, democracy, and ... More
3. The origins of the schoolStoicism and Plato

3. The origins of the school: Stoicism and Plato  

Brad Inwood

in Stoicism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2018
Published Online: 
Jul 2018
eISBN: 
9780191828973
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198786665.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198786665
The earliest Stoics shared a great deal with Plato and his followers, so why didn’t the early Stoics just join Plato’s Academy? The problem was metaphysics. Plato’s most distinctive ... More
2. Socratic literature and the Socratic problem

2. Socratic literature and the Socratic problem  

C. C. W. Taylor

in Socrates: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2019
Published Online: 
Aug 2019
eISBN: 
9780191873355
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198835981.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198835981
‘Socratic literature and the Socratic problem’ asks what access sources give us to the historical Socrates. The only Socratic literature known to have been written before Socrates’ death is ... More

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