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6. Paris

6. Paris  

Tom Sorell

in Descartes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776632
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854094.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854094
‘Paris’ describes the period 1626–8 when Descartes was resident there. He must have been aware of the controversies concerning atheism and scepticism that were rife in the city, but ... More
8. Three Specimens of a Method

8. Three Specimens of a Method  

Tom Sorell

in Descartes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776632
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854094.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854094
‘Three Specimens of a Method’ discusses three essays: Dioptrics, Meteors, and Geometry, published, together with the Discourse on Methods, in 1637. The literary form of the Discourse and ... More
9. A New ‘Logic’

9. A New ‘Logic’  

Tom Sorell

in Descartes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776632
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854094.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854094
‘A New Logic’ points out that the Dioptrics, Meteors, and Geometry were not free-standing treatises but advertisements for a novel method of reasoning in the sciences. The Discourse on ... More
4. Plato's Socrates

4. Plato's Socrates  

C. C. W. Taylor

in Socrates: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776663
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854124.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854124
‘Plato's Socrates’ shows that Socrates is predominantly characterized, not as a teacher, but as an enquirer. He disclaims wisdom, and seeks, normally in vain, elucidation of problematic ... More
3. The origins of the schoolStoicism and Plato

3. The origins of the school: Stoicism and Plato  

Brad Inwood

in Stoicism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2018
Published Online: 
Jul 2018
eISBN: 
9780191828973
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198786665.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198786665
The earliest Stoics shared a great deal with Plato and his followers, so why didn’t the early Stoics just join Plato’s Academy? The problem was metaphysics. Plato’s most distinctive ... More
3. Being

3. Being  

Michael Inwood

in Heidegger: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2019
Published Online: 
Jan 2019
eISBN: 
9780191867095
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198828662.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198828662
‘Being’ describes the importance that Heidegger ascribed to considering the nature of an object, or its Being, before addressing knowledge of it. Whereas other philosophers, including ... More
5. Complete-concept theory, theory of truth, and theory of knowledge

5. Complete-concept theory, theory of truth, and theory of knowledge  

Maria Rosa Antognazza

in Leibniz: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191788079
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198718642.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198718642
Leibniz maintained that the principle of identity/non-contradiction implies that every true predication must have some foundation in the nature of that thing. Otherwise A would not be A. If ... More
11. The Meditations

11. The Meditations  

Tom Sorell

in Descartes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776632
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854094.003.0011
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854094
The Meditations had an unusual literary form, suited both to its official billing as demonstrating Christian truths, and to Descartes' agenda of destroying the principles underlying ... More
4. Wittgenstein and recent philosophy

4. Wittgenstein and recent philosophy  

A. C. Grayling

in Wittgenstein: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776656
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854117.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854117
Was Wittgenstein the most influential presence in twentieth-century philosophy? The majority of recent and contemporary analytic philosophers disagree with him. They are more influenced by ... More
2. Heidegger’s philosophy

2. Heidegger’s philosophy  

Michael Inwood

in Heidegger: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2019
Published Online: 
Jan 2019
eISBN: 
9780191867095
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198828662.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198828662
‘Heidegger’s philosophy’ lays out the significance of, and the questions raised by, Heidegger’s masterwork, Being and Time, which was published in 1927. The result of his reading, ... More
3. The transcendental deduction

3. The transcendental deduction  

Roger Scruton

in Kant: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775482
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192801999.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192801999
Kant asks: how is synthetic a priori knowledge possible? His answer to this question contains two parts, one of which is subjective and the other objective. ‘The transcendental deduction’ ... More
5. The categorical imperative

5. The categorical imperative  

Roger Scruton

in Kant: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775482
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192801999.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192801999
The Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals which preceded the Critique provides a summary of Kant's moral viewpoint. Both works look at ‘ practical reason’. ‘ The categorical ... More
1. Introduction

1. Introduction  

John Marenbon

in Medieval Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2016
Published Online: 
Jan 2016
eISBN: 
9780191781216
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199663224.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199663224
For many, Thomas Aquinas is almost a synonym for medieval philosophy, locating it in Western Europe and principally from the early 13th to the mid-14th century. Medieval philosophy is also ... More
9. Society and the best life (Ibn Ṭufayl and Dante)

9. Society and the best life (Ibn Ṭufayl and Dante)  

John Marenbon

in Medieval Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2016
Published Online: 
Jan 2016
eISBN: 
9780191781216
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199663224.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199663224
Arguably, the fundamental question in ethics is: what is the best life in the sense of flourishing as a human being? This question leads to another: what is the relation between an ... More
Epilogue

Epilogue  

Maria Rosa Antognazza

in Leibniz: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191788079
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198718642.003.0010
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198718642
The ‘Epilogue’ concludes that it is possible to trace important elements of Leibniz’s way of thinking back to many different traditions, all of them reshaped and remodelled with the help of ... More
8. Monads

8. Monads  

Maria Rosa Antognazza

in Leibniz: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191788079
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198718642.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198718642
From 1695 Leibniz came to the view that the best way to capture what it is to be a substance is through the concept of ‘monad’. ‘Monad’, Leibniz explained, comes from the Greek monas ‘which ... More
9. Monads, corporeal substances, and bodies

9. Monads, corporeal substances, and bodies  

Maria Rosa Antognazza

in Leibniz: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191788079
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198718642.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198718642
‘Monads, corporeal substances, and bodies’ explores the relationship between monads and the extended bodies of the physical world. How Leibniz conceives bodies in his mature metaphysics is ... More
2. Life

2. Life  

C. C. W. Taylor

in Socrates: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776663
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854124.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854124
Socrates was seen by contemporaries as an arguer and questioner, challenging people's pretensions to expertise and revealing inconsistencies in their beliefs. Many considered him a ... More
Descartes: A Very Short Introduction

Descartes: A Very Short Introduction  

Tom Sorell

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776632
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854094.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780192854094
Descartes: A Very Short Introduction explores the life and work of a man who made fundamental contributions to physics, mathematics, and optics, and reported useful ... More
Socrates: A Very Short Introduction

Socrates: A Very Short Introduction  

Christopher Taylor

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776663
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854124.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780192854124
Socrates has a unique position in the history of philosophy. Had it not been for his influence on Plato, the whole development of Western philosophy might have been unimaginably different ... More

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