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1. The emergence and state of the HIV and AIDS epidemic

1. The emergence and state of the HIV and AIDS epidemic  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
‘The emergence and state of the HIV and AIDS epidemic’ outlines the emergence of HIV/AIDS, charting the current state of the disease globally. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is ... More
The Immune System: A Very Short Introduction

The Immune System: A Very Short Introduction  

Paul Klenerman

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2017
Published Online: 
Nov 2017
eISBN: 
9780191815706
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198753902.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198753902
The Immune System: A Very Short Introduction describes the immune system and how it works in health and disease. It focuses on the human immune system, considering how it ... More
8. Functional foods, superfoods, and supplements

8. Functional foods, superfoods, and supplements  

David A. Bender

in Nutrition: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2014
Published Online: 
Jun 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779985
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199681921.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199681921
When a vitamin or mineral deficiency is widespread in a population, a common approach is to enrich or fortify a staple food. ‘Functional foods, superfoods, and supplements’ defines ... More
4. HIV

4. HIV  

Marta L. Wayne and Benjamin M. Bolker

in Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785276
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688937.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688937
HIV is the human immunodeficiency virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Its transmission is by exchange of bodily fluids. HIV can only enter immune cells with the ... More
6. Development, numbers, and politics

6. Development, numbers, and politics  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
‘Development, numbers, and politics’ first considers the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set by the United Nations in 2000 and explains how achieving some of them was difficult due to ... More
4. Emerging virus infectionsVertebrate-Transmitted Viruses

4. Emerging virus infections: Vertebrate-Transmitted Viruses  

Dorothy H. Crawford

in Viruses: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2018
Published Online: 
Mar 2018
eISBN: 
9780191848520
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198811718.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198811718
The term ‘emerging virus infection’ refers to both the emergence of an infectious disease caused by a virus that is new to the species it infects, and to a re-emerging infection, meaning ... More
7. Persistent viruses

7. Persistent viruses  

Dorothy H. Crawford

in Viruses: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2018
Published Online: 
Mar 2018
eISBN: 
9780191848520
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198811718.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198811718
‘Persistent viruses’ explains how some viruses have evolved strategies for overcoming immune mechanisms and survive inside their host for prolonged periods, even for a lifetime. Evasion ... More
HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction

HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)  

Alan Whiteside

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198727491
HIV/AIDS: A Very Short Introduction provides an introduction to AIDS—the most serious human epidemic in centuries—tackling the science, politics, demographics, and devastating ... More
1. What is the immune system?

1. What is the immune system?  

Paul Klenerman

in The Immune System: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2017
Published Online: 
Nov 2017
eISBN: 
9780191815706
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198753902.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198753902
The immune system resists threats from outside as well as from within the body. ‘What is the immune system?’ considers the basic mechanisms of immunity and describes the specific structures ... More
5. Too little immunity: immunological failure

5. Too little immunity: immunological failure  

Paul Klenerman

in The Immune System: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2017
Published Online: 
Nov 2017
eISBN: 
9780191815706
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198753902.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198753902
The immune system is continuously active, preventing severe infection from the micro-organisms that colonize our skin and our gut, and suppressing the chronic virus infections most of us ... More
Viruses: A Very Short Introduction

Viruses: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)  

Dorothy H. Crawford

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2018
Published Online: 
Mar 2018
eISBN: 
9780191848520
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198811718.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198811718
Viruses: A Very Short Introduction outlines the origins, structure, and method of infection of a vast variety of viruses and demonstrates how clever these entities appear to ... More
2. How HIV and AIDS work and scientific responses

2. How HIV and AIDS work and scientific responses  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
‘How HIV and AIDS work and scientific responses’ explains how HIV operates and is transmitted, and how science has progressed in the discovery and delivery of practical treatments and ... More
8. Funding the epidemic

8. Funding the epidemic  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
The response to HIV and AIDS has to be funded, whether the emphasis is on prevention, treatment, or both. AIDS is unique in part because of its complex financing. It requires long-term ... More
4. The state in the bedroom

4. The state in the bedroom  

Véronique Mottier

in Sexuality: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777196
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199298020.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199298020
The sexual revolution of the 1960s, brought on by reliable methods of contraception, the legalization of abortion, and the relaxation of moral controls led to greater openness, legal ... More
5. Production and people

5. Production and people  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
‘Production and people’ examines the socioeconomic impact of AIDS, predicted to decrease economic growth. Yet many countries have nonetheless continued to grow. The effect on the private ... More
4. Single market, single currency

4. Single market, single currency  

Simon Usherwood and John Pinder

in The European Union: A Very Short Introduction (4th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2018
Published Online: 
Jan 2018
eISBN: 
9780191846601
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198808855.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198808855
Monetary union requires that money in all its forms be able to move freely across frontiers between member states and that exchange rates changes between them be abolished. ‘Single market, ... More
3. What shapes epidemics?

3. What shapes epidemics?  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
‘What shapes epidemics’ investigates links between HIV/AIDS and certain biological, socioeconomic, and behavioural factors. The main biomedical drivers of HIV/AIDS (after contact with the ... More
7. Treatment and prevention dilemmas

7. Treatment and prevention dilemmas  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
AIDS is still a major threat. ‘Treatment and prevention dilemmas’ shows that prevention and public health programmes are the most cost-effective way to health. HIV infection is preventable ... More
9. Big issues and major challenges

9. Big issues and major challenges  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
Unless something dramatic happens, the AIDS epidemic will be under control across the world by 2022. The number of new infections will continue to fall; there will be virtually no vertical ... More
7. HIV/AIDS

7. HIV/AIDS  

Christian W. McMillen

in Pandemics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780190625214
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199340071.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199340071
HIV/AIDS had been percolating in central Africa since the early twentieth century, but it appeared in its now recognizable form in the spring of 1981. Doctors in America spotted a strange ... More

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