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8. Scribes and materials

8. Scribes and materials  

Andrew Robinson

in Writing and Script: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2009
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777509
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199567782.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199567782
Writing is a universal skill, but it can also be an art form. Almost every literate society has a class of professional scribes who are also artists. In ancient Mesopotamia scribes were ... More
6. The Koran as codex

6. The Koran as codex  

Michael Cook

in The Koran: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776311
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853448.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853448
There are many ways to present a text. This is influenced by culture and materials. ‘The Koran as codex’ examines how the Koran was first assembled and how it is presented today. The leaves ... More
8. Decisive change?

8. Decisive change?  

Gillian Clark

in Late Antiquity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777295
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199546206.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199546206
‘Decisive change?’ looks at the forces ranged against the Christian Roman empire — including Islam, the Saracens, Persians, and Arabs — and investigates the fall of Rome. The Arab conquest ... More
4. Decipherment and undeciphered scripts

4. Decipherment and undeciphered scripts  

Andrew Robinson

in Writing and Script: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2009
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777509
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199567782.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199567782
In a technical sense, ‘decipher’ means different things to different scholars. At one end of the spectrum lies Egyptian script which is more or less completely decipherable with just a ... More
3. Disappearance of scripts

3. Disappearance of scripts  

Andrew Robinson

in Writing and Script: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2009
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777509
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199567782.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199567782
We know more about the death of scripts than we do about their birth. No single theory can encompass why scripts flourish or vanish. Many aspects influence the survival or disappearance of ... More
5. How writing systems work

5. How writing systems work  

Andrew Robinson

in Writing and Script: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2009
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777509
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199567782.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199567782
‘How writing systems work’ looks at the history of the academic study of decipherment. Writing systems vary in complexity from European and American alphabetic signs, numerals, punctuation ... More
3. The dissemination of the Koran

3. The dissemination of the Koran  

Michael Cook

in The Koran: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776311
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853448.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853448
With modernity came the ability to disseminate widely a scripture among those who believe in it. The most obvious change came with the invention of the printing press. ‘The dissemination of ... More
7. The Koran as text

7. The Koran as text  

Michael Cook

in The Koran: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776311
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853448.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853448
The attitude of a culture towards faithful transmission need not be either uniform or constant. ‘The Koran as text’ considers how the Koran has been recorded and preserved. Muslims in the ... More
13. Doubts and puzzles

13. Doubts and puzzles  

Michael Cook

in The Koran: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776311
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853448.003.0013
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853448
There is a certain amount of obscurity in the text of the Koran. There are clusters of linguistic puzzles in it, and translations can do no more than gloss over or guess. ‘Doubts and ... More
14. Conclusion

14. Conclusion  

Michael Cook

in The Koran: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776311
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853448.003.0014
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853448
A scripture, or classic, acts as two things: a product of its own time and an authority in our time. The Conclusion asks: how well is the Koran equipped to be both of these things today? ... More
8. The Koran as worship

8. The Koran as worship  

Michael Cook

in The Koran: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776311
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853448.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853448
The Koran plays a significant role in Muslim worship. The Muslim worshipper does not read the Koran, it is recited. ‘The Koran as worship’ looks at the place the Koran plays in Muslim life. ... More
2. Peoples and Cultures

2. Peoples and Cultures  

Adam J. Silverstein

in Islamic History: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777264
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199545728.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199545728
‘Peoples and cultures’ considers how the Arabs, Persians, and Turks created Islamic history. The Arabs and their culture have been central to all Muslims in a number of ways. The spread of ... More
6. Alphabets

6. Alphabets  

Andrew Robinson

in Writing and Script: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2009
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777509
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199567782.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199567782
Even more unknowable than the origins of writing are origins of the first alphabet. We accept that the alphabet reached the modern world via the ancient Greeks. We do not know how or when ... More
2. The causes of multilingualism

2. The causes of multilingualism  

John C. Maher

in Multilingualism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2017
Published Online: 
May 2017
eISBN: 
9780191792465
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198724995.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198724995
How do languages spread and why do so many languages exist? Well-known agents of spread are war and colonization, but also migration and settlement, religion, the media, and the needs of ... More
10. The Koran as an object of dogma

10. The Koran as an object of dogma  

Michael Cook

in The Koran: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776311
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853448.003.0010
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853448
The tug-of-war between the two antithetical tendencies of imagining God in terms intelligible to humans and imagining him in sublime, transcendent terms is a strong one. ‘The Koran as an ... More
4. The interpretation of the Koran

4. The interpretation of the Koran  

Michael Cook

in The Koran: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776311
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853448.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853448
A culture can do a variety of things with a classic or sacred text. One of those things is to provide commentaries. ‘The interpretation of the Koran’ looks at the different ways that the ... More
7. Identity and culture

7. Identity and culture  

John C. Maher

in Multilingualism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2017
Published Online: 
May 2017
eISBN: 
9780191792465
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198724995.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198724995
Multilingual does not mean multicultural nor do cultural beliefs and awareness automatically imply language ability. Language and culture are asymmetrical. Their association is contingent ... More
6. The components of slang

6. The components of slang  

Jonathon Green

in Slang: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2016
Published Online: 
Feb 2016
eISBN: 
9780191796418
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198729532.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198729532
‘The components of slang’ outlines the forms and etymological roots of slang and considers how the terms are validated. Slang offers no forms unique to itself. It borrows much of its lexis ... More
4. Forms, identities, and interpretations

4. Forms, identities, and interpretations  

Matthew Reynolds

in Translation: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2016
Published Online: 
Oct 2016
eISBN: 
9780191780622
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198712114.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198712114
‘Forms, identities, and interpretation’ first looks at icons and how shapes and images are used in sign systems to create simple, international languages. It then considers the ... More
2. How many languages are there in the world?

2. How many languages are there in the world?  

Stephen R. Anderson

in Languages: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778018
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199590599.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199590599
‘How many languages are there in the world?’ acknowledges the pioneering work of missionary organizations with an interest in translating the Bible in documenting the languages of the ... More

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