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1. Islam, Muslims, and Islamism

1. Islam, Muslims, and Islamism  

Malise Ruthven

in Islam: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778261
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199642878.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199642878
Islam is the religion of about one-fifth of humanity. The terrorist attacks in September 2001 raised the profile of Islam throughout the world as a subject of analysis and discussion. ... More
4. Divine messengers

4. Divine messengers  

David Albert Jones

in Angels: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777301
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199547302.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199547302
Angel (malach) is a Hebrew word meaning messenger. It means the same in Arabic and Greek. The tradition of angels begins with an encounter of an angel as a messenger. Augustine sees the ... More
3. An argument against the existence of God

3. An argument against the existence of God  

Stephen Law

in Humanism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777363
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199553648.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199553648
God in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam has three important characteristics: omnipotence, omniscience, and supreme benevolence. Through these three characteristics, theism is challenged by ... More
2. Types and traditions

2. Types and traditions  

Philip Sheldrake

in Spirituality: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777981
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199588756.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199588756
Spiritualties take a variety of different shapes. ‘Types and traditions’ shows a way of categorizing different forms of spirituality that can be applied across boundaries, and illustrates ... More
1. Preliminaries

1. Preliminaries  

Michael Cook

in The Koran: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776311
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853448.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853448
Every society has its sacred texts. What these texts share, despite their variety, is their centrality to their respective cultures. ‘Preliminaries’ gives a brief sketch of the history of ... More
1. Introduction

1. Introduction  

Richard Lyman Bushman

in Mormonism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780199365562
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780195310306.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780195310306
Although its adherents regard it as a restoration of ancient Christianity, Mormonism holds a number of distinctive doctrines and practices, among them belief in a scripture supplemental to ... More
2. Paganism in retreat

2. Paganism in retreat  

Owen Davies

in Paganism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777110
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199235162.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199235162
‘Paganism in retreat’ describes the gradual Christianization of the Roman world. Missionaries were sent into the pagan territories, ideally to live amongst them. To be successful, they had ... More
3. Gods in the North

3. Gods in the North  

Owen Davies

in Paganism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777110
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199235162.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199235162
While the leaders of some Germanic tribes converted in the 4th century, it was in northern Europe that non-Christian religions held out the longest against the spread of Christianity. This ... More
6. The political reformation

6. The political reformation  

Scott H. Hendrix

in Martin Luther: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777653
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199574339.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199574339
After Emperor Charles V became emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Charles became Luther's monarch. Although the Reformation in Germany started as a religious protest, it was also political ... More
8. Angels and demons

8. Angels and demons  

Scott H. Hendrix

in Martin Luther: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777653
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199574339.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199574339
For Luther the Reformation was a watershed because it moved Western Christendom from a long period of captivity under strict papal rule to a new age of freedom. Luther was still a medieval ... More
6. Jesus Christ

6. Jesus Christ  

David F. Ford

in Theology: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2013
Published Online: 
Oct 2013
eISBN: 
9780191779855
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199679973.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199679973
Modernity has created a huge gulf between the premodern and ourselves, making it difficult to imagine how a 1st-century person can be deeply relevant to life today. ‘Jesus Christ’ asks: How ... More
4. Living before God: worship and ethics

4. Living before God: worship and ethics  

David F. Ford

in Theology: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2013
Published Online: 
Oct 2013
eISBN: 
9780191779855
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199679973.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199679973
‘Living before God: worship and ethics’ is an introduction to thinking theologically about what it means to be human, starting from the phenomenon of worship as the key dynamic of human ... More
3. Iran and Islam

3. Iran and Islam  

Ali M. Ansari

in Iran: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781315
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199669349.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199669349
In 1979 the Islamic Revolution overthrew the monarchy and transformed Iran’s relations with the outside world. Iranian history was reassessed along with the importance of Islam to Iranian ... More
2. Fear of the dark?: blacks, Jews, and barbarians

2. Fear of the dark?: blacks, Jews, and barbarians  

Ali Rattansi

in Racism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776137
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805904.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192805904
The concept of race long preceded the invention of the term. The idea that human biological characteristics such as skin colour, facial features, hair, and skull size were associated with ... More
11. The collection of the Koran

11. The collection of the Koran  

Michael Cook

in The Koran: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776311
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853448.003.0011
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853448
History tells us how God's speech came to be collected in the form we see it today. ‘The collection of the Koran’ examines gathering together of the Koranic text. The oldest securely dated ... More
13. Doubts and puzzles

13. Doubts and puzzles  

Michael Cook

in The Koran: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776311
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853448.003.0013
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853448
There is a certain amount of obscurity in the text of the Koran. There are clusters of linguistic puzzles in it, and translations can do no more than gloss over or guess. ‘Doubts and ... More
2. Kingdoms

2. Kingdoms  

James R. Rush

in Southeast Asia: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2018
Published Online: 
Jun 2018
eISBN: 
9780190248796
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780190248765.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190248765
By the second or third millennium bce, the people of Southeast Asia were cultivating rice, domesticating pigs, chickens, and cattle, and forming the region’s earliest settled communities in ... More
1. Definitions

1. Definitions  

Stephen J. Davis

in Monasticism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2018
Published Online: 
Jan 2018
eISBN: 
9780191788321
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198717645.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198717645
The word ‘monasticism’ derives from the Greek adjectives monos (‘solitary, alone’), or its cognate monachos (‘solitary, deserted’). The first evidence for the use of monachos to refer to a ... More
1. The formation of Augustine's mind: Cicero, Mani, Plato, Christ

1. The formation of Augustine's mind: Cicero, Mani, Plato, Christ  

Henry Chadwick

in Augustine: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776762
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854520.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854520
Augustine was a prolific writer. He was born in ad 354 and died in 430. He lived mostly in Roman North Africa. ‘The formation of Augustine's mind: Cicero, Mani, Plato, Christ’ looks at how ... More
7. Unity and division

7. Unity and division  

Henry Chadwick

in Augustine: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776762
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854520.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854520
After the year 303, in the aftermath of the Great Persecution under Diocletian, the African churches were divided. The Christians of Africa disagreed about whether it was right to commit ... More

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