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4. Divine messengers

4. Divine messengers  

David Albert Jones

in Angels: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777301
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199547302.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199547302
Angel (malach) is a Hebrew word meaning messenger. It means the same in Arabic and Greek. The tradition of angels begins with an encounter of an angel as a messenger. Augustine sees the ... More
7. Fallen angels

7. Fallen angels  

David Albert Jones

in Angels: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777301
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199547302.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199547302
If the forces of light are angels, what are the forces of darkness? Where do they come from? Led by the Devil, they were originally good angels who rebelled and turned against God. These ... More
1. Introduction

1. Introduction  

Richard Lyman Bushman

in Mormonism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780199365562
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780195310306.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780195310306
Although its adherents regard it as a restoration of ancient Christianity, Mormonism holds a number of distinctive doctrines and practices, among them belief in a scripture supplemental to ... More
3. Zion

3. Zion  

Richard Lyman Bushman

in Mormonism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780199365562
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780195310306.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780195310306
Although the meaning of Zion has changed since the Mormons founded their first city in Missouri, it gave rise to many of Mormonism's fundamental features. ‘Zion’ identifies these as ... More
8. Decisive change?

8. Decisive change?  

Gillian Clark

in Late Antiquity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777295
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199546206.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199546206
‘Decisive change?’ looks at the forces ranged against the Christian Roman empire — including Islam, the Saracens, Persians, and Arabs — and investigates the fall of Rome. The Arab conquest ... More
7. ‘People should know when they are conquered’: the reinventions of the Western Way of War

7. ‘People should know when they are conquered’: the reinventions of the Western Way of War  

Harry Sidebottom

in Ancient Warfare: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2004
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776045
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192804709.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192804709
Psychology plays an important part in victory and defeat in ancient warfare. Despite what many people are led to believe by depictions of classical warfare in films and books, genocide was ... More
2. Kingdoms

2. Kingdoms  

James R. Rush

in Southeast Asia: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2018
Published Online: 
Jun 2018
eISBN: 
9780190248796
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780190248765.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190248765
By the second or third millennium bce, the people of Southeast Asia were cultivating rice, domesticating pigs, chickens, and cattle, and forming the region’s earliest settled communities in ... More
Miracles: A Very Short Introduction

Miracles: A Very Short Introduction  

Yujin Nagasawa

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2017
Published Online: 
Nov 2017
eISBN: 
9780191809361
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198747215.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198747215
What exactly is a miracle? What types of miracles are believed in the world’s great religions? What do recent scientific findings tell us about miracles? Can we rationally believe that ... More
3. Muhammad in Islamic Civilization

3. Muhammad in Islamic Civilization  

Jonathan A. C. Brown

in Muhammad: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777417
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199559282.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199559282
In September 2005 Muslims worldwide were outraged at an editorial cartoon depicting Muhammad in a variety of caricatures in a Danish newspaper. Earlier in 1989, the Ayatollah Khomeini ... More
Angels: A Very Short Introduction

Angels: A Very Short Introduction  

David Albert Jones

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777301
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199547302.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199547302
Angels: A Very Short Introduction outlines prominent stories and speculations about angels in Judaism, Islam, Christianity, and post-Christian spiritualties. What are angels? ... More
2. Picturing angels

2. Picturing angels  

David Albert Jones

in Angels: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777301
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199547302.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199547302
‘Picturing angels’ looks at the development of angels in art as a whole and religious art through history. The traditional depiction of angles has been largely shaped by Christian artists. ... More
3. What is an angel?

3. What is an angel?  

David Albert Jones

in Angels: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777301
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199547302.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199547302
Angels are not gods, they are spiritual servants of a single Creator. Some historians argue that belief in angels represents a compromise with polytheism. There is a common agreement that ... More
6. Heavenly hosts

6. Heavenly hosts  

David Albert Jones

in Angels: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777301
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199547302.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199547302
What is the significance of Jacob's vision of a ladder between heaven and earth? Why does it occur in a dream? This idea of ascending and descending on Jacob's ladder is a frequently used ... More
6. Whither the silk road?

6. Whither the silk road?  

James A. Millward

in The Silk Road: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780199365883
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199782864.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199782864
‘Whither the silk road?’ considers the silk road’s fate. It was traditionally believed that the silk road declined after 1500 with the arrival of European ships in the Indian Ocean. ... More
4. Contesting martyrdom

4. Contesting martyrdom  

Jolyon Mitchell

in Martyrdom: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777882
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199585236.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199585236
Martyrdom in Christian traditions is not a stable term with a single meaning. This is also the case within Islamic traditions. Recently martyrdom has gone digital and this has changed the ... More
4. Is it rational to believe in miracles?

4. Is it rational to believe in miracles?  

Yujin Nagasawa

in Miracles: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2017
Published Online: 
Nov 2017
eISBN: 
9780191809361
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198747215.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198747215
‘Is it rational to believe in miracles?’ considers the most crucial question concerning miracles by scrutinizing existing arguments against belief in miracles. The best-known critic of ... More
Mormonism: A Very Short Introduction

Mormonism: A Very Short Introduction  

Richard Lyman Bushman

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780199365562
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780195310306.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780195310306
Mormonism: A Very Short Introduction sets out to examine a religion with over 12 million adherents that still baffles outsiders nearly 170 years after the founder' death. How ... More
Muhammad: A Very Short Introduction

Muhammad: A Very Short Introduction  

Jonathan A.C. Brown

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777417
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199559282.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199559282
Muhammad: A Very Short Introduction provides an introduction to the major aspects of Muhammad's life and its importance, giving both the Muslim and Western historical ... More
2. Shaping Muhammad in History

2. Shaping Muhammad in History  

Jonathan A. C. Brown

in Muhammad: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777417
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199559282.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199559282
The most famous Muslim biography of Muhammad is the Sira written by Ibn Ishaq. Books like the Sira were the products of early Muslim historians whose work revolved around personal accounts ... More
4. The Sources

4. The Sources  

Adam J. Silverstein

in Islamic History: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777264
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199545728.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199545728
How do we know what we know about Islamic history? ‘The sources’ attempts to answer this question. The documents of Cairo Geniza, which record daily life amongst ordinary people and provide ... More

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