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5. Justice

5. Justice  

Malcolm Gaskill

in Witchcraft: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777158
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199236954.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199236954
The early church did not execute witches, seeing them as reformable, but in the Middle Ages the campaign against heresy intensified. Reliance on secular power to kill diabolists was ... More
1. The formation of Augustine's mind: Cicero, Mani, Plato, Christ

1. The formation of Augustine's mind: Cicero, Mani, Plato, Christ  

Henry Chadwick

in Augustine: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776762
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854520.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854520
Augustine was a prolific writer. He was born in ad 354 and died in 430. He lived mostly in Roman North Africa. ‘The formation of Augustine's mind: Cicero, Mani, Plato, Christ’ looks at how ... More
2. Liberal arts

2. Liberal arts  

Henry Chadwick

in Augustine: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776762
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854520.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854520
Augustine did not draw sharp lines between philosophy and theology. This could be because he was heavily influenced by Platonism. He described the motive which led people to philosophize in ... More
2. Heresy

2. Heresy  

Malcolm Gaskill

in Witchcraft: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777158
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199236954.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199236954
According to ‘Heresy’, historically, political and religious orthodoxy went together. Romans saw witches as ruthless criminals. The early Christian church expressed hostility to magic but ... More
6. Rage

6. Rage  

Malcolm Gaskill

in Witchcraft: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777158
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199236954.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199236954
In first half of the 17th century, Europe was especially prone to witch-panics fuelled by war, rebellion and economic crisis. Rather than allaying fears, witch-hunts spread them. ‘Rage’ ... More
1. Fear

1. Fear  

Malcolm Gaskill

in Witchcraft: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777158
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199236954.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199236954
‘Fear’ reminds us that witches are monsters haunting our dreams, confirming who we are through what we are not. Witches are living projections of feelings that defy easy rationalization or ... More
5. Weeks and seasons

5. Weeks and seasons  

Leofranc Holford-Strevens

in The History of Time: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776076
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192804990.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192804990
‘Weeks and seasons’ first considers the week, a fusion of two conceptually different cycles: the planetary week, originally beginning on Saturday, derived from Hellenistic astrology, and ... More
2. Playing philosophically

2. Playing philosophically  

Rob Iliffe

in Newton: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777202
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199298037.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199298037
‘Playing philosophically’ considers Newton's early life, describing how his immersion in worlds of practical ingenuity not only offered portents of his great future, but led directly to it. ... More
2. What is mathematics and who is a mathematician?

2. What is mathematics and who is a mathematician?  

Jacqueline Stedall

in The History of Mathematics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778094
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199599684.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199599684
‘What is mathematics and who is a mathematician?’ questions the meaning and use of the terms based on the Greek mathemata, which simply meant ‘what has been learned’. The history of ... More
Scepticism: A Very Short Introduction

Scepticism: A Very Short Introduction  

Duncan Pritchard

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2019
Published Online: 
Sep 2019
eISBN: 
9780191867606
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198829164.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198829164
Throughout history, scepticism and the urge to question accepted truths has been a powerful force for change and growth. A healthy amount of scepticism is widely encouraged, but when is ... More
1. What is scepticism?

1. What is scepticism?  

Duncan Pritchard

in Scepticism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2019
Published Online: 
Sep 2019
eISBN: 
9780191867606
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198829164.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198829164
Scepticism concerns doubt, primarily doubt about what is true. So construed, the sceptic is not proposing that truth is just subjective opinion in the way that the relativist is. Indeed, ... More
2. Sex, seed, and sin in the medieval world

2. Sex, seed, and sin in the medieval world  

John Waller

in Heredity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2017
Published Online: 
Aug 2017
eISBN: 
9780191831706
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198790457.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198790457
The decline of the Roman Empire led to a dramatic drop in trade and the loss of much ancient scholarship. Then, around ad 1000, advances in farming, transport, and finance and an improving ... More
4. Truth

4. Truth  

Malcolm Gaskill

in Witchcraft: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777158
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199236954.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199236954
The history of witchcraft shows that knowledge was determined by institutions and ideologies. ‘Truth’ explains that knowledge was political, and so therefore was witchcraft. Even among the ... More
5. The psychology of superstition

5. The psychology of superstition  

Stuart Vyse

in Superstition: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2020
Published Online: 
Jan 2020
eISBN: 
9780191859854
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198819257.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198819257
Holding superstitious beliefs in a time when the fruits of science are all around us seems somewhat paradoxical, so why do people believe? ‘The psychology of superstition’ considers the ... More
Augustine: A Very Short Introduction

Augustine: A Very Short Introduction  

Henry Chadwick

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776762
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854520.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780192854520
Augustine: A Very Short Introduction traces the development of Augustine's thought, discussing his reaction to the thinkers before him, and themes such as freedom, creation, ... More
2. The connected world

2. The connected world  

Lawrence M. Principe

in The Scientific Revolution: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777493
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199567416.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199567416
‘The connected world’ examines the viewpoints of early modern natural philosophers. Unlike modern scientists, natural philosophers viewed the world in an interconnected, cosmic sense. They ... More
3. The superlunar world

3. The superlunar world  

Lawrence M. Principe

in The Scientific Revolution: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777493
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199567416.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199567416
‘The superlunar world’ outlines the astronomical developments of the scientific revolution. Ancient thinkers such as Plato and Ptolemy originated the ideas of planetary orbital spheres and ... More
1. The world of gods, demons, and men

1. The world of gods, demons, and men  

Matthew T. Kapstein

in Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2013
Published Online: 
Oct 2013
eISBN: 
9780199375226
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199735129.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199735129
‘The world of gods, demons, and men’ considers the two perceived ends of Tibetan religion – world-maintenance and world-transcendence – the ideal of the lama, the spiritually accomplished ... More
2. The architecture of the heavens

2. The architecture of the heavens  

Owen Gingerich

in Copernicus: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2016
Published Online: 
Aug 2016
eISBN: 
9780190605520
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199330966.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199330966
During his studies, Copernicus learned three important details about celestial motions that would provide a fundamental foundation for his future astronomical work. First, the sun moves ... More
Witchcraft: A Very Short Introduction

Witchcraft: A Very Short Introduction  

Malcolm Gaskill

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777158
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199236954.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199236954
Witchcraft: A Very Short Introduction explores why witches still feature so heavily in our cultures and consciousness. From childhood most of us develop a sense of the ... More

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