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14. Clerks and Commerce: The Lower Middle Class

14. Clerks and Commerce: The Lower Middle Class  

Christopher Harvie and H. C. G. Matthew

in Nineteenth-Century Britain: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776533
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853981.003.0014
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853981
‘Clerks and Commerce: The Lower Middle Class’ considers the creation of a new social class as the numbers of the middle class were swelled by the emergence of a service sector. Civil ... More
2. The place from where we started

2. The place from where we started  

Bernard Crick

in Democracy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775574
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802507.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802507
‘The place from where we started’ looks at the classical democracies of Greece and the Roman Republic. In ancient Greece, democracy helped create an active citizenry dedicated to public ... More
8. What’s in it for whom?

8. What’s in it for whom?  

Edward Craig

in Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776700
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854216.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854216
Thinking about philosophy is hard. Writing about it is even harder. Why do people bother? Perhaps often just out of curiosity. ‘What's in it for whom?’ asks: why does philosophy exist and ... More
5. Underdogs

5. Underdogs  

Matthew Bevis

in Comedy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778131
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199601714.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199601714
‘Underdogs’ explores the attraction of the less fortunate in comedy. Socrates suggests that we enjoy the spectacle of others doing daft things we would secretly like to do ourselves. ... More
10. Feminists across the world

10. Feminists across the world  

Margaret Walters

in Feminism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776106
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805102.003.0011
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192805102
‘Feminists across the world’ looks at the concept and reality of ‘Sisterhood’. Feminism has been dominated by Western white middle-class women and is open to the charge that it has not ... More
4. Structure of groups

4. Structure of groups  

Ian Stewart

in Symmetry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778292
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199651986.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199651986
‘Structure of groups’ discusses the basic concepts of group theory. Isomorphism occurs when two technically distinct groups share the same abstract structure and order. Groups may also ... More
9. Fascism and class

9. Fascism and class  

Kevin Passmore

in Fascism: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
May 2014
Published Online: 
May 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779848
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199685363.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199685363
‘Fascism and class’ examines the social make-up and motivations of fascist supporters, and then asks how the strategies of fascist activists shaped fascism's appeal. At one time fascism was ... More
1. Foundations: ethics, parables, and fish

1. Foundations: ethics, parables, and fish  

Sabina Knight

in Chinese Literature: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780199365739
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780195392067.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780195392067
‘Foundations: ethics, parables, and fish’ explores ethical teachings in Chinese literature. The main theme of Chinese literature was the transience of human nature. Writing was seen as a ... More
10. Unfinished taskssolidarity, resistance, and global society

10. Unfinished tasks: solidarity, resistance, and global society  

Stephen Eric Bronner

in Critical Theory: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2017
Published Online: 
Oct 2017
eISBN: 
9780190692704
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780190692674.003.0011
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190692674
The Frankfurt School never really thought about the world beyond Europe, the Soviet Union, and the United States. But there exists a global totality in which the most basic principles of ... More
4. Alienation and reification

4. Alienation and reification  

Stephen Eric Bronner

in Critical Theory: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2017
Published Online: 
Oct 2017
eISBN: 
9780190692704
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780190692674.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190692674
‘Alienation and reification’ explores the concepts of alienation and reification in Karl Marx's Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, and how this affected 20th century Western ... More
10. Incorporation

10. Incorporation  

Christopher Harvie and H. C. G. Matthew

in Nineteenth-Century Britain: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776533
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853981.003.0010
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853981
‘Incorporation’ deals with the recognition by the law of previously subversive ideas and movements, as well as the discontent of those outside the law. In 1850, trade unions were ... More
4. The Making of Middle England

4. The Making of Middle England  

Paul Langford

in Eighteenth-Century Britain: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776540
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853998.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853998
‘The Making of Middle England’ explores the impact of the emergence of a middle class on society. In eighteenth-century Europe, England was the outstanding example of a plutocratic society, ... More
8. Quiet revolutions

8. Quiet revolutions  

Colin Ward

in Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2004
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776069
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192804778.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192804778
Have the aspirations of the anarchists of the last century been a catalogue of impossible hopes? ‘Quiet revolutions’ argues that the answer is no. In a partial, albeit incomplete, but ... More
8. Atoms of symmetry

8. Atoms of symmetry  

Ian Stewart

in Symmetry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778292
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199651986.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199651986
‘Atoms of symmetry’ introduces simple groups, which are the indivisible fragments of finite symmetry groups. A comparison can be made with prime numbers, but molecular structure provides a ... More
2. From stardust to planets, the abodes for life

2. From stardust to planets, the abodes for life  

David C. Catling

in Astrobiology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2013
Published Online: 
Oct 2013
eISBN: 
9780191779923
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199586455.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199586455
Life exists because following a Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago, a hot, dense cosmos expanded and cooled. As it did so, atoms, galaxies, stars, planets, and life arose. ‘From stardust to ... More
Pain: A Very Short Introduction

Pain: A Very Short Introduction  

Rob Boddice

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jul 2017
eISBN: 
9780191801815
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198738565.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198738565
What is pain? How is pain related to emotions, culture, and pleasure? What happens to us when we feel pain? Pain: A Very Short Introduction explores the history, culture, and medical ... More
6. Algebra and the arithmetic of remainders

6. Algebra and the arithmetic of remainders  

Peter M. Higgins

in Algebra: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2015
Published Online: 
Oct 2015
eISBN: 
9780191797644
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198732822.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198732822
‘Algebra and the arithmetic of remainders’ considers a new type of algebra, which is both an ancient topic and one that has found major contemporary application in Internet cryptography. It ... More
1. What is a mammal?

1. What is a mammal?  

T. S. Kemp

in Mammals: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2017
Published Online: 
Sep 2017
eISBN: 
9780191821172
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198766940.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198766940
‘What is a mammal?’ considers the diverse range of animals of varying forms, lifestyles, and habitats that make up the Class Mammalia. Despite the diversity, these animals share key ... More
1. Hope

1. Hope  

Craig Jeffrey

in Modern India: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2017
Published Online: 
Nov 2017
eISBN: 
9780191822414
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198769347.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198769347
India is the fastest growing major economy in the world with a large and rapidly growing middle class. It has established an identity as a major power in terms of Information Technology and ... More
11. Probability: the strange case of the missing reference class

11. Probability: the strange case of the missing reference class  

Graham Priest

in Logic: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2017
Published Online: 
Oct 2017
eISBN: 
9780191848513
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198811701.003.0011
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198811701
A probability is a number assigned to a sentence, measuring how likely it is that the sentence might turn out to be true. It is measured on a scale of 0 to 10. ‘Probability: the strange ... More

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