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2. Recycling

2. Recycling  

Tim Lenton

in Earth System Science: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2016
Published Online: 
Feb 2016
eISBN: 
9780191788338
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198718871.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198718871
How does the Earth system support such a flourishing of life? A habitable climate and water are essential, but organisms also need energy and materials out of which to build their bodies. ... More
8. Key management

8. Key management  

Fred Piper and Sean Murphy

in Cryptography: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775741
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803153.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803153
The security of any cryptographic system is totally dependent on the security of the keys. ‘Key management’ explains how keys must be protected during all phases of their life cycle — key ... More
1. Nature's driver

1. Nature's driver  

Nick Middleton

in Rivers: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777974
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199588671.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199588671
In what ways is water ‘Nature's driver’? It covers two-thirds of the Earth's surface and is constantly on the move in the hydrological cycle. Rivers play a key role in this cycle. They ... More
4. The life of cells

4. The life of cells  

Terence Allen and Graham Cowling

in The Cell: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777745
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199578757.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199578757
‘The life of cells’ explains the ‘cell cycle’ by considering the processes involved. Firstly, the cell needs to duplicate all of its molecules. At the organelle level, several hundred ... More
5. Making and breaking nuclei

5. Making and breaking nuclei  

Frank Close

in Nuclear Physics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2015
Published Online: 
Jul 2015
eISBN: 
9780191788062
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198718635.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198718635
‘Making and breaking nuclei’ describes the process by which the atomic elements came to be in the early universe. The heat energy in the big bang, some 13.7 billion years ago, converted ... More
4. The burning issue: molecules and energy

4. The burning issue: molecules and energy  

Philip Ball

in Molecules: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2003
Published Online: 
Apr 2014
eISBN: 
9780191776724
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854308.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854308
‘The burning issue: molecules and energy’ describes how energy can be transferred through molecular reactions. Metabolic processes are the foundation of cellular life. All chemical ... More
6. Emergence of networks

6. Emergence of networks  

Guido Caldarelli and Michele Catanzaro

in Networks: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777936
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199588077.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199588077
‘Emergence of networks’ considers a range of network models that explain how local mechanisms, without global planning, can generate large-scale, complex, ordered, and efficient structures. ... More
7. Reconstructing the past and weathering the future

7. Reconstructing the past and weathering the future  

Rob Ellam

in Isotopes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2016
Published Online: 
May 2016
eISBN: 
9780191790737
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198723622.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198723622
Tiny microfossils called Foraminifera form calcium carbonate shells that record the δ18O composition of the seawater in which they grew. These microfossils are found in sea bed sediment ... More
2. Viruses are everywhere

2. Viruses are everywhere  

Dorothy H. Crawford

in Viruses: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2018
Published Online: 
Mar 2018
eISBN: 
9780191848520
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198811718.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198811718
‘Viruses are everywhere’ describes the ‘virosphere’—the huge virus biomass of enormous variety and complexity in the environment. Viruses are the most numerous microbes on Earth with an ... More
8. Light and dark

8. Light and dark  

Martin Luck

in Hormones: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2014
Published Online: 
Jul 2014
eISBN: 
9780191780011
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672875.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672875
Many of the body’s rhythms reflect the circadian cycle, but how do they interact? ‘Light and dark’ describes a network of systems involving the senses, parts of the brain, the activation ... More
6. Fungi and decomposition

6. Fungi and decomposition  

Nicholas P. Money

in Fungi: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2016
Published Online: 
Jan 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785825
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688784.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688784
Fungi that do not form supportive or parasitic relationships with plants and animals feed on the debris of life. These are saprotrophs that decompose dead roots, leaves, flowers, fruits, ... More
6. Taking time

6. Taking time  

Michelle Baddeley

in Behavioural Economics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2017
Published Online: 
Jan 2017
eISBN: 
9780191816475
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198754992.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198754992
Often our everyday decisions unfold over time and what we want today is not always consistent with what we might want tomorrow. Understanding why many people do not behave in a way that is ... More
8. Behaviour in the macroeconomy

8. Behaviour in the macroeconomy  

Michelle Baddeley

in Behavioural Economics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2017
Published Online: 
Jan 2017
eISBN: 
9780191816475
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198754992.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198754992
Behavioural macroeconomics has significant constraints, reflecting the difficulty of bringing together the choices of different people with widely different personality types, moods, and ... More
Projects: A Very Short Introduction

Projects: A Very Short Introduction  

Andrew Davies

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2017
Published Online: 
Oct 2017
eISBN: 
9780191793691
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727668.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198727668
What is a project? How is it organized? Projects: A Very Short Introduction looks at how projects have developed since the industrial revolution to create the human-built world in which we ... More
1. Introduction

1. Introduction  

Andrew Davies

in Projects: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2017
Published Online: 
Oct 2017
eISBN: 
9780191793691
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727668.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727668
Projects have existed since the earliest agrarian societies. While they may differ in purpose, scale, and scope, each project is established to bring together people with diverse knowledge ... More
3. The mysteries of reproduction

3. The mysteries of reproduction  

Martin Luck

in Hormones: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2014
Published Online: 
Jul 2014
eISBN: 
9780191780011
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672875.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672875
‘The mysteries of reproduction’ begins with Pergonal (human menopausal gonadotrophin), a hormone preparation extracted from urine which contains pituitary hormones crucial to the ... More
Émile Zola: A Very Short Introduction

Émile Zola: A Very Short Introduction  

Brian Nelson

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2020
Published Online: 
Jul 2020
eISBN: 
9780191874208
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198837565.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198837565
Émile Zola was a 19th-century novelist and social commentator, and the leader of the literary movement known as ‘naturalism’. Émile Zola: A Very Short Introduction explores key themes in ... More
5. The man-eaterNana

5. The man-eater: Nana  

Brian Nelson

in Émile Zola: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2020
Published Online: 
Jul 2020
eISBN: 
9780191874208
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198837565.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198837565
‘The man-eater’ turns to Nana, the ninth volume in the Rougon-Macquart cycle. Nana is the story of Gervaise Macquart’s daughter Anna/Nana, a street prostitute turned actress and courtesan. ... More
3. Regulation

3. Regulation  

Tim Lenton

in Earth System Science: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2016
Published Online: 
Feb 2016
eISBN: 
9780191788338
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198718871.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198718871
The Earth system has maintained habitable conditions for life over geological periods of time. These conditions include an equable global temperature, enough atmospheric carbon dioxide to ... More
4. Modelling future climate

4. Modelling future climate  

Mark Maslin

in Climate Change: A Very Short Introduction (3rd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2014
Published Online: 
Oct 2014
eISBN: 
9780191788376
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198719045.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198719045
‘Modelling future climate’ is about understanding the fundamental physical processes of the climate system. Modelling future climate considers the carbon cycle, cooling effects, carbon ... More

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