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3. Drugs as medicines

3. Drugs as medicines  

Les Iversen

in Drugs: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2016
Published Online: 
Jun 2016
eISBN: 
9780191808210
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198745792.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198745792
‘Drugs as medicines’ highlights the principles behind the successful use of medicines to cure or ameliorate the symptoms of many illnesses. These range from infectious diseases, such as ... More
4. Haemoglobin

4. Haemoglobin  

Chris Cooper

in Blood: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Sep 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785467
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199581450.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199581450
‘Haemoglobin’ explains the key role played by this protein: binding oxygen in the lungs and carrying it around the blood circulation, where it is offloaded to every cell in the body. ... More
5. Testing how to control a disease

5. Testing how to control a disease  

Rodolfo Saracci

in Epidemiology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777257
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199543335.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199543335
‘Testing how to control a disease’ lists key features of randomized controlled trials: the study design is always based on randomization; the choice of the study population is critical for ... More
4. Potential therapies using pluripotent stem cells

4. Potential therapies using pluripotent stem cells  

Jonathan Slack

in Stem Cells: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778162
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199603381.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199603381
‘Potential therapies using pluripotent stem cells’ examines some of the diseases that may be the first to be treated by cell therapy using pluripotent stem cells. Pluripotent stem cells may ... More
1. The emergence and state of the HIV and AIDS epidemic

1. The emergence and state of the HIV and AIDS epidemic  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
‘The emergence and state of the HIV and AIDS epidemic’ outlines the emergence of HIV/AIDS, charting the current state of the disease globally. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is ... More
6. Following up people’s health

6. Following up people’s health  

Rodolfo Saracci

in Epidemiology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777257
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199543335.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199543335
In randomized controlled trials, subjects treated differently are followed up over time to observe the effects of the intervention (treatment). ‘Following up people's health’ points out ... More
5. Bacterial pathogenesis

5. Bacterial pathogenesis  

Sebastian G.B. Amyes

in Bacteria: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777752
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199578764.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199578764
‘Bacterial pathogenesis’ explains the stages of pathogenesis, virulence factors, the four groups of pathogenic bacteria (adhesins, aggressins, impedins, and invasins), plasmids, and ... More
3. Discovery

3. Discovery  

Sebastian G.B. Amyes

in Bacteria: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777752
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199578764.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199578764
‘Discovery’ begins in the late 17th century with the work of Antonie van Leewenhoek who, using crude glass lenses as magnifying glasses, was able to see and describe red blood cells and ... More
6. Too much immunity: auto-immunity and allergic diseases

6. Too much immunity: auto-immunity and allergic diseases  

Paul Klenerman

in The Immune System: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2017
Published Online: 
Nov 2017
eISBN: 
9780191815706
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198753902.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198753902
Given the capacity to cause tissue damage and inflammation, every immune response must be appropriately and specifically tuned. Failure to tune appropriately leads to a range of ... More
7. The immune system v2.0: biological and immune therapies

7. The immune system v2.0: biological and immune therapies  

Paul Klenerman

in The Immune System: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2017
Published Online: 
Nov 2017
eISBN: 
9780191815706
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198753902.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198753902
This VSI examines the basic building blocks of the immune system, how they work as a team, and what happens when the teamwork breaks down. Researchers apply this basic knowledge working to ... More
5. Diagnosis and treatment

5. Diagnosis and treatment  

Kathleen Taylor

in Dementia: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2020
Published Online: 
Jul 2020
eISBN: 
9780191864674
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198825784.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198825784
‘Diagnosis and treatment’ explains the systems used to classify brain disorders, and the change in our understanding of dementia from seeing it as threshold to a spectrum of symptoms that ... More
2. Measuring health and disease

2. Measuring health and disease  

Rodolfo Saracci

in Epidemiology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777257
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199543335.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199543335
For the purpose of epidemiological study, a disease can be defined either by creating a definition and regarding as cases the subjects that fit it or by accepting as cases those subjects ... More
8. Looking ahead

8. Looking ahead  

Marta L. Wayne and Benjamin M. Bolker

in Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785276
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688937.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688937
‘Looking ahead’ shows how our understanding of disease ecology and evolution has revolutionized disease management. By developing transmission control strategies to close the encounter ... More
Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction

Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction  

Marta Wayne and Benjamin Bolker

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785276
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688937.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199688937
Infectious disease is a moving target: new diseases emerge every year, old diseases evolve into new forms, and ecological and socioeconomic upheavals change the transmission pathways by ... More
1. Introduction

1. Introduction  

Marta L. Wayne and Benjamin M. Bolker

in Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785276
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688937.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688937
The ‘Introduction’ explains what infectious diseases are: diseases that are transmitted from one person to another. For most of human history, diseases could only be controlled at the ... More
3. The origins of public health into the 1700s

3. The origins of public health into the 1700s  

Virginia Berridge

in Public Health: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2016
Published Online: 
Jul 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785481
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688463.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688463
Public health cannot be understood without a knowledge of its history. ‘The origins of public health into the 1700s’ considers the earliest roots of public health, 4,000 years ago in ... More
5. Fungi as parasites of plants

5. Fungi as parasites of plants  

Nicholas P. Money

in Fungi: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2016
Published Online: 
Jan 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785825
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688784.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688784
Parasitic fungi that grow on plants have reshaped the biosphere and caused the deaths of millions of people since the beginning of agriculture. Dutch elm disease and chestnut blight are ... More
2. Our families and other animals

2. Our families and other animals  

James Yeates

in Veterinary Science: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2018
Published Online: 
Feb 2018
eISBN: 
9780191833366
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198790969.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198790969
Anthropic and veterinary medical science overlap considerably, each learning from the other. However, simply comparing and contrasting them is not that helpful. Essentially, veterinary ... More
3. When timing goes wrong

3. When timing goes wrong  

Russell G. Foster and Leon Kreitzman

in Circadian Rhythms: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191787164
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198717683.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198717683
While time of day, interacting with an individual’s chronotype, can have an important impact upon performance and health, severe disruption of the circadian system adds another level of ... More
2. Smallpox

2. Smallpox  

Christian W. McMillen

in Pandemics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780190625214
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199340071.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199340071
The world was declared smallpox-free in 1980, but this endemic and pandemic disease had killed hundreds of millions of people over the preceding millennium. Smallpox was first described in ... More

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