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8. Key management

8. Key management  

Fred Piper and Sean Murphy

in Cryptography: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775741
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803153.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803153
The security of any cryptographic system is totally dependent on the security of the keys. ‘Key management’ explains how keys must be protected during all phases of their life cycle — key ... More
8. Whither poverty?

8. Whither poverty?  

Philip N. Jefferson

in Poverty: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2018
Published Online: 
Jul 2018
eISBN: 
9780191785078
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198716471.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198716471
A world without extreme poverty is still some way off, but there have been moments where some actual poverty reduction occurred. ‘Whither poverty?’ considers three of the post-1960 attempts ... More
4. Chance experiments

4. Chance experiments  

John Haigh

in Probability: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777943
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199588480.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199588480
‘Chance experiments’ expands on the notion of distributions, which are central to analysing the consequences of chance experiments. For discrete data, probability can be determined using ... More
3. The architects of a reef

3. The architects of a reef  

Charles Sheppard

in Coral Reefs: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2014
Published Online: 
Jun 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779978
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199682775.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199682775
‘The architects of a reef’ gives a global overview of reef distribution and details the biology, growth, and reproduction of the main animals and plants that build them. Coral reefs are ... More
2. Simple descriptions

2. Simple descriptions  

David J. Hand

in Statistics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777097
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199233564.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199233564
‘Simple descriptions’ outlines the basic tools available to statisticians. Data describe the universe we wish to study, but it can never be an exhaustive description of our subject. It is ... More
3. London’s wobbly bridge: learning from failure

3. London’s wobbly bridge: learning from failure  

Mark Dodgson and David Gann

in Innovation: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2018
Published Online: 
Aug 2018
eISBN: 
9780191863691
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198825043.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198825043
‘London’s wobbly bridge: learning from failure’ considers the ways in which much progress in science, engineering, and innovation is built upon failure. It is because of risks and ... More
5. Superconnectors

5. Superconnectors  

Guido Caldarelli and Michele Catanzaro

in Networks: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777936
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199588077.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199588077
‘Superconnectors’ compares homogeneous networks, where all nodes have more or less the same degree, and heterogeneous networks, where hubs, or superconnectors, are present. In homogeneous ... More
7. Co-evolution and the formation of niches

7. Co-evolution and the formation of niches  

John H. Holland

in Complexity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2014
Published Online: 
Jul 2014
eISBN: 
9780191780004
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199662548.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199662548
What is a niche? ‘Co-evolution and the formation of niches’ explains that the term ‘niche’ is widely used to describe an important part of the hierarchical organization of complex adaptive ... More
4. Measurement in the life sciences, medicine, and health

4. Measurement in the life sciences, medicine, and health  

David J. Hand

in Measurement: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2016
Published Online: 
Oct 2016
eISBN: 
9780191824609
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198779568.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198779568
Biological systems pose particularly challenging measurement issues. This is partly because the biological domain is characterized by complexity and diversity. As a consequence, the results ... More
6. Branding projects

6. Branding projects  

Robert Jones

in Branding: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2017
Published Online: 
Jun 2017
eISBN: 
9780191814242
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198749912.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198749912
‘Branding projects’ considers the different aspects of current branding practice—defining purpose, proposition, personality, and portfolio—using examples from businesses such as Ryanair, ... More
Demography: A Very Short Introduction

Demography: A Very Short Introduction  

Sarah Harper

Print Publication Year: 
May 2018
Published Online: 
May 2018
eISBN: 
9780191792724
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198725732.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198725732
Demography—the study of people—addresses the size, distribution, composition, and density of populations, and considers the impact these factors have on individual lives and the changing ... More
3. Electricity systems

3. Electricity systems  

Nick Jenkins

in Energy Systems: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2019
Published Online: 
Nov 2019
eISBN: 
9780191851643
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198813927.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198813927
‘Electricity systems’ explains that the two essential functions of an electricity system are to take power from the generators and distribute it to consumers, and to balance the supply and ... More
8. Other applications

8. Other applications  

John Haigh

in Probability: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777943
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199588480.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199588480
‘Other applications’ explores the applications of probability theory in less obvious fields, such as law, social science, sport, and economics. Many probability terms are used in a legal ... More
5. Making sense of probabilities

5. Making sense of probabilities  

John Haigh

in Probability: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777943
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199588480.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199588480
‘Making sense of probabilities’ shows how decisions can be made from correctly interpreting probabilities. Fair gambles are ones that give no advantage to either party. All commercial bets, ... More
1. The zeroth lawThe concept of temperature

1. The zeroth law: The concept of temperature  

Peter Atkins

in The Laws of Thermodynamics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777608
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199572199.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199572199
The zeroth law can be most simply stated as: ‘If A is in thermal equilibrium with B, and B is in thermal equilibrium with C, then C will be in thermal equilibrium with A.’ ‘The zeroth law’ ... More
5. Genes of small effect

5. Genes of small effect  

Jonathan Slack

in Genes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2014
Published Online: 
Sep 2014
eISBN: 
9780191780950
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199676507.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199676507
‘Genes of small effect’ considers unidentified genes whose variants collectively affect some characteristic of interest. Many aspects of living organisms depend not on the action of a few ... More
5. Random walks and Brownian motion

5. Random walks and Brownian motion  

Kenneth J. Falconer

in Fractals: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778599
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199675982.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199675982
‘Random walks and Brownian motion’ looks at how fractals can be generated by random events. In mathematics, the ‘random walk’ is a graph where the direction of the next point in relation to ... More
2. Quantifying risk

2. Quantifying risk  

Mark H. A. Davis

in Mathematical Finance: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2019
Published Online: 
Jan 2019
eISBN: 
9780191829932
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198787945.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198787945
A large part of the purpose of the financial markets is to manage, and indeed profit from, risk—the uncertainty surrounding future events, any event, in fact, that affects the views of ... More
3. Measurement

3. Measurement  

Philip N. Jefferson

in Poverty: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2018
Published Online: 
Jul 2018
eISBN: 
9780191785078
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198716471.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198716471
What do we mean when we say someone is living in poverty? Do we mean that their income is too low, that their consumption is too low, or that given their particular level of either, their ... More
6. Distribution and mobility

6. Distribution and mobility  

Philip N. Jefferson

in Poverty: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2018
Published Online: 
Jul 2018
eISBN: 
9780191785078
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198716471.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198716471
We all start out in a given position in society and with a level of income (or wealth). What determines where we will end up? Will we be better off than our parents were? For people living ... More

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