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6. The electron microscopy of surfaces

6. The electron microscopy of surfaces  

Terence Allen

in Microscopy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2015
Published Online: 
May 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785290
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198701262.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198701262
‘The electron microscopy of surfaces’ explains how scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provides a cornerstone of understanding of surfaces and their properties. It involves moving a small ... More
1. Matter from the inside

1. Matter from the inside  

Peter Atkins

in Physical Chemistry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2014
Published Online: 
Apr 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779633
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199689095.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199689095
‘Matter from the inside’ shows that one way to understand how a physical chemist thinks and contributes to chemistry is to start at the atom's interior and then travel out into the world of ... More
5. Electron microscopy and the dawn of atomic resolution

5. Electron microscopy and the dawn of atomic resolution  

Terence Allen

in Microscopy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2015
Published Online: 
May 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785290
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198701262.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198701262
In 1933 Ernst Ruska built an electron microscope with a magnification of 12,000 times. The birth of electron microscopy has allowed scientists to identify biological and chemical structures ... More
7. Electronic structure

7. Electronic structure  

Eric R. Scerri

in The Periodic Table: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2019
Published Online: 
Jul 2019
eISBN: 
9780191878329
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198842323.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198842323
‘Electronic structure’ examines the work that went into determining the properties of electrons in atoms. Quantum theory was devised by Max Planck in 1900, and was applied to hydrogen atoms ... More
1. What are viruses?

1. What are viruses?  

Dorothy H. Crawford

in Viruses: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2018
Published Online: 
Mar 2018
eISBN: 
9780191848520
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198811718.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198811718
‘What are viruses?’ introduces viruses and their structure. Martinus Beijerinck, in 1898, was the first to coin the term ‘virus’, and invention of the electron microscope in the late 1930s ... More
9. Twilight

9. Twilight  

Ian Walmsley

in Light: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2015
Published Online: 
Sep 2015
eISBN: 
9780191782442
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199682690.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199682690
‘Twilight’ concludes this VSI by acknowledging some of the topics that have not been covered: the fantastic discoveries arising from looking at other regions of the electromagnetic spectrum ... More
6. Sources of radiation

6. Sources of radiation  

A. M. Glazer

in Crystallography: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Mar 2016
eISBN: 
9780191787072
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198717591.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198717591
To observe diffraction from crystals it is necessary to have a source of radiation whose wavelength is of the same order as the atomic spacings. ‘Sources of radiation’ shows that the ... More
6. Changing the identity of matter

6. Changing the identity of matter  

Peter Atkins

in Physical Chemistry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2014
Published Online: 
Apr 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779633
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199689095.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199689095
A great deal of chemistry is concerned with changing the identity of matter by the deployment of chemical reactions. Physical chemists are interested in a variety of aspects of chemical ... More
2. Close inspection

2. Close inspection  

Christopher Hall

in Materials: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2014
Published Online: 
Oct 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781247
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672677.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672677
‘Close inspection’ explains that at the core of materials science is the understanding of the internal structure of materials. If we don’t understand the internal structure we shall ... More
2. Studying minerals

2. Studying minerals  

David Vaughan

in Minerals: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2014
Published Online: 
Oct 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781254
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199682843.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199682843
The study of minerals begins with their characterization, identification, and classification determined from their chemical compositions and crystallographic properties. ‘Studying minerals’ ... More
The Periodic Table: A Very Short Introduction

The Periodic Table: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)  

Eric R. Scerri

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2019
Published Online: 
Jul 2019
eISBN: 
9780191878329
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198842323.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198842323
The periodic table of elements provides an arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties. The Periodic ... More
7. The chemistry of the senses

7. The chemistry of the senses  

Graham Patrick

in Organic Chemistry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191820779
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198759775.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198759775
Naturally occurring organic molecules play an important role in the way we perceive the world through the senses of sight, taste, and smell. In addition, many synthetic organic molecules ... More
2. A spectrum of microscopies

2. A spectrum of microscopies  

Terence Allen

in Microscopy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2015
Published Online: 
May 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785290
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198701262.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198701262
In order to enable the eye to see detail beyond its normal range, we must provide it with a magnified image, illuminated in some way so we can actually visualize it, and with sufficient ... More
7. Magnification by other routes

7. Magnification by other routes  

Terence Allen

in Microscopy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2015
Published Online: 
May 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785290
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198701262.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198701262
‘Magnification by other routes’ outlines scanning tunnelling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, near field optical scanning microscopy, superlenses producing a negative refractive index, ... More
Nuclear Physics: A Very Short Introduction

Nuclear Physics: A Very Short Introduction  

Frank Close

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2015
Published Online: 
Jul 2015
eISBN: 
9780191788062
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198718635.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198718635
Nuclear Physics: A Very Short Introduction gives an account of how this area of physics has progressed since the discovery of the electron at the end of the 19th century, which ... More
4. Diffraction

4. Diffraction  

A. M. Glazer

in Crystallography: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Mar 2016
eISBN: 
9780191787072
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198717591.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198717591
In order to understand diffraction from a three-dimensional crystal, a new type of lattice, constructed from the real lattice used so far, is defined. It is the reciprocal lattice proposed ... More
4. Its reactions

4. Its reactions  

Peter Atkins

in Chemistry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2015
Published Online: 
Feb 2015
eISBN: 
9780191782459
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199683970.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199683970
The essence of chemistry is the transformation of one combination of atoms into another through reactions, and ‘Its reactions’ introduces some characteristics of these processes. It shows ... More
Microscopy: A Very Short Introduction

Microscopy: A Very Short Introduction  

Terence Allen

Print Publication Year: 
May 2015
Published Online: 
May 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785290
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198701262.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198701262
Microscopy is a dynamic area of science, incorporating both basic classroom microscopes and sophisticated research style instruments that can be driven by light, electrons, or X-rays. ... More
1. Microscopy and the discovery of a new world

1. Microscopy and the discovery of a new world  

Terence Allen

in Microscopy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2015
Published Online: 
May 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785290
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198701262.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198701262
‘Microscopy and the discovery of a new world’ explains how microscopes were first constructed in the early 17th century by Robert Hooke and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, as a development from the ... More
1. Engineers of the invisible: making molecules

1. Engineers of the invisible: making molecules  

Philip Ball

in Molecules: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2003
Published Online: 
Apr 2014
eISBN: 
9780191776724
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854308.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854308
‘Engineers of the invisible: making molecules’ explores how molecules can be explained, represented, and manufactured. Chemistry studies the properties of elements, and molecules are the ... More

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