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13. Empiricism

13. Empiricism  

Jonathan Barnes

in Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Nov 2015
eISBN: 
9780191822322
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854087.003.0013
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854087
‘Empiricism’ stresses that, for Aristotle, knowledge or science ultimately derives from perception. That is the source of the concepts in terms of which we seek to understand reality. ... More
1. Kant and modernity

1. Kant and modernity  

Andrew Bowie

in German Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777561
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199569250.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199569250
‘Kant and modernity’ argues that Kant's philosophy has to be grasped as part of the larger historical picture of which it is an expression. This is because the assumption that things have a ... More
1. The Gap between Knowledge and Wisdom

1. The Gap between Knowledge and Wisdom  

Simon Critchley

in Continental Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776373
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853592.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853592
‘The gap between knowledge and wisdom’ asks: Does the scientific conception of the world eradicate the need for an answer to the question of the meaning of life? Ancient philosophy was ... More
8. Transcendental philosophy

8. Transcendental philosophy  

Roger Scruton

in Kant: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775482
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192801999.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192801999
Kant's immediate successors regarded Kant as having changed the course of philosophy. However, even during his lifetime, the intellectual world was torn by controversy over the meaning of ... More
7. Neo-Kantianism, analytical philosophy, and phenomenology

7. Neo-Kantianism, analytical philosophy, and phenomenology  

Andrew Bowie

in German Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777561
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199569250.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199569250
The division between ‘European/Continental’ and ‘analytical’ philosophy is a modern construction. ‘Neo-Kantianism, analytical philosophy, and phenomenology’ looks at the basis of this ... More
3. The evolving scholarship of futures studies

3. The evolving scholarship of futures studies  

Jennifer M. Gidley

in The Future: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191799549
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198735281.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198735281
Many futurists over the years came to the realization that attempting to predict the future, based on scientific positivism, was not the most productive way to approach futures studies in ... More
1. Three thousand years of futures

1. Three thousand years of futures  

Jennifer M. Gidley

in The Future: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191799549
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198735281.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198735281
By understanding how humans in the past have framed the future, we can gain a deeper appreciation of the significance of futures thinking. ‘Three thousand years of futures’ explores the ... More
2. The future multiplied

2. The future multiplied  

Jennifer M. Gidley

in The Future: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191799549
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198735281.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198735281
What if there is not one future that can be colonized and controlled, but many possible futures that can be imagined, designed, and created collaboratively? In everyday language we speak of ... More
6. A Case Study in Misunderstanding: Heidegger and Carnap

6. A Case Study in Misunderstanding: Heidegger and Carnap  

Simon Critchley

in Continental Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776373
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853592.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853592
‘A Case Study in Misunderstanding: Heidegger and Carnap’ explores the conflict between analytic and continental philosophy in the context of Heidegger and Carnap. A large part of the ... More
3. Philosophy, mind, and science

3. Philosophy, mind, and science  

A. C. Grayling

in Russell: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775659
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802583.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802583
‘Philosophy, mind, and science’ considers the questions of method and metaphysics that became important to Bertrand Russell during the course of his work on perception. The philosophy and ... More
3. The transcendental deduction

3. The transcendental deduction  

Roger Scruton

in Kant: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775482
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192801999.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192801999
Kant asks: how is synthetic a priori knowledge possible? His answer to this question contains two parts, one of which is subjective and the other objective. ‘The transcendental deduction’ ... More
5. The categorical imperative

5. The categorical imperative  

Roger Scruton

in Kant: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775482
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192801999.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192801999
The Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals which preceded the Critique provides a summary of Kant's moral viewpoint. Both works look at ‘ practical reason’. ‘ The categorical ... More
3. Rationalism and empiricism

3. Rationalism and empiricism  

Jennifer Nagel

in Knowledge: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2014
Published Online: 
Sep 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779916
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199661268.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199661268
‘Rationalism and empiricism’ considers the different ways of thinking about nature that emerged in the Early Modern period, illustrated by René Descartes' rationalism and John Locke's ... More
6. Cognitive behaviour therapy

6. Cognitive behaviour therapy  

Tom Burns and Eva Burns‐Lundgren

in Psychotherapy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2015
Published Online: 
Jan 2015
eISBN: 
9780191781599
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199689361.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199689361
Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) brings together the strengths of behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy. ‘Cognitive behaviour therapy’ identifies three layers of thinking in CBT theory: ... More
9. Dispositionalism: what tends to be?

9. Dispositionalism: what tends to be?  

Stephen Mumford and Rani Lill Anjum

in Causation: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2013
Published Online: 
Nov 2013
eISBN: 
9780191779909
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199684434.003.0010
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199684434
What is the dispositionalist theory of causation? ‘Dispositionalism: what tends to be?’ outlines the ideas of dispositionalism where causation is essentially dispositional in nature. It is ... More
2. Regularity: causation without connection?

2. Regularity: causation without connection?  

Stephen Mumford and Rani Lill Anjum

in Causation: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2013
Published Online: 
Nov 2013
eISBN: 
9780191779909
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199684434.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199684434
A regularity is where one kind of thing is associated with or followed by another kind of thing. ‘Regularity: causation without connection?’ shows that types of events, actions, or states ... More
2. The background of Kant's thought

2. The background of Kant's thought  

Roger Scruton

in Kant: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775482
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192801999.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192801999
The Critique of Pure Reason is the most important work of philosophy written in modern times. ‘The background of Kant's thought’ presents, with as few technicalities as possible, an ... More
KnowledgeA Very Short Introduction

Knowledge: A Very Short Introduction  

Jennifer Nagel

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2014
Published Online: 
Sep 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779916
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199661268.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199661268
What is knowledge? How does it differ from mere belief? Do you need to be able to justify a claim in order to count as knowing it? Knowledge: A Very Short Introduction considers these ... More
5. How can we think more clearly?

5. How can we think more clearly?  

Michael Beaney

in Analytic Philosophy: A Very Short introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2017
Published Online: 
Nov 2017
eISBN: 
9780191823442
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198778028.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198778028
Analytic philosophy places great emphasis on clarity. But what does ‘clarity’ mean and how can we think more clearly? How does clarity connect with other virtues of analytic philosophy? ... More
Kant: A Very Short Introduction

Kant: A Very Short Introduction  

Roger Scruton

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775482
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192801999.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780192801999
Kant: A Very Short Introduction tackles this exceptionally complex subject, exploring the background to Kant's work and showing why the Critique of Pure Reason has proved so ... More

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