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3. Extinction in the past

3. Extinction in the past  

Paul B. Wignall

in Extinction: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2019
Published Online: 
Jun 2019
eISBN: 
9780191844928
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198807285.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198807285
Despite the less-than-perfect nature of the fossil record, it still provides a unique window on the history of life, and reveals that there have been dramatic fluctuations in extinction ... More
5. How to kill nearly everything

5. How to kill nearly everything  

Paul B. Wignall

in Extinction: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2019
Published Online: 
Jun 2019
eISBN: 
9780191844928
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198807285.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198807285
‘How to kill nearly everything’ considers the proposed causes of mass extinctions, often called the kill mechanisms. An almost bewildering array of ideas have been put forward as likely ... More
2. Extinction today and efforts to stop it

2. Extinction today and efforts to stop it  

Paul B. Wignall

in Extinction: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2019
Published Online: 
Jun 2019
eISBN: 
9780191844928
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198807285.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198807285
The fossil record shows that life has experienced five major mass extinctions. A sixth catastrophe may be underway. Past mass extinctions were geologically short-lived intense crises that ... More
4. The evidence for evolution by natural selection

4. The evidence for evolution by natural selection  

Jonathan Howard

in Darwin: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Feb 2014
eISBN: 
9780191776786
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854544.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854544
‘The evidence for evolution by natural selection’ shows that domestication and hybrid fertility provided evidence for evolution and against the fixity of species by experimental ... More
7. Perfection and progress

7. Perfection and progress  

Jonathan Howard

in Darwin: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Feb 2014
eISBN: 
9780191776786
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854544.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854544
‘Perfection and progress’ considers Darwin's response to the idealisations of perfection and progress, which represented two opposed justificatory principles. Perfection and progress were ... More
Oceans: A Very Short Introduction

Oceans: A Very Short Introduction  

Dorrik Stow

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jul 2017
eISBN: 
9780191782428
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199655076.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199655076
The oceans are critical for life on Earth. They are vital for the regulation of climate, and with global warming and decreasing land area they have become increasingly important as a source ... More
7. Evolution and extinction

7. Evolution and extinction  

Dorrik Stow

in Oceans: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jul 2017
eISBN: 
9780191782428
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199655076.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199655076
‘Evolution and extinction’ explores the likely origins of life, its evolution and marked changes, and the major extinction events that have punctuated this progress. The principal focus is ... More
Extinction: A Very Short Introduction

Extinction: A Very Short Introduction  

Paul B. Wignall

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2019
Published Online: 
Jun 2019
eISBN: 
9780191844928
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198807285.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198807285
Extinction has occurred throughout the history of life, with the result that nearly all the species that have ever existed are now extinct. Extinction: A Very Short Introduction looks at ... More
7. The origin of modern ecosystems

7. The origin of modern ecosystems  

Michael J. Benton

in The History of Life: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777011
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199226320.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199226320
‘The origin of modern ecosystems’ is about the Mesozoic Era, the time from 251 to 65 million years ago, marked at each end by a mass extinction event, the end-Permian at the start, and the ... More
3. The surprising thing about learning

3. The surprising thing about learning  

Mark Haselgrove

in Learning: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2016
Published Online: 
Jul 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785412
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688364.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688364
‘The surprising thing about learning’ considers the second key question about learning: what is the nature of the mechanism that allows learning to take place? It first looks at the ... More
4. The radiation of mammals

4. The radiation of mammals  

T. S. Kemp

in Mammals: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2017
Published Online: 
Sep 2017
eISBN: 
9780191821172
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198766940.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198766940
For two-thirds of their entire history, right through the 135 million years left of the Mesozoic Era, mammals were all small, secretive animals feeding at night on insects, worms, seeds, ... More
6. What happened to the Ice Age megafauna?

6. What happened to the Ice Age megafauna?  

Paul B. Wignall

in Extinction: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2019
Published Online: 
Jun 2019
eISBN: 
9780191844928
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198807285.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198807285
The Ice Age or Pleistocene Period, from 2.6 million to 11,650 years ago, was a time when the climate cycled from glacial to interglacial states every 100,000 years or so, resulting in ... More
6. The biggest mass extinction

6. The biggest mass extinction  

Michael J. Benton

in The History of Life: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777011
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199226320.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199226320
‘The biggest mass extinction’ discusses the biggest of the five mass extinctions — the end-Permian mass extinction 251 million years ago when up to 96 per cent of species died out. ... More
1. Why extinctions happen

1. Why extinctions happen  

Paul B. Wignall

in Extinction: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2019
Published Online: 
Jun 2019
eISBN: 
9780191844928
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198807285.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198807285
‘Why extinctions happen’ looks at what we currently know about causes and styles of extinction today and in the past. This knowledge lies at the heart of our understanding about the way the ... More
Darwin: A Very Short Introduction

Darwin: A Very Short Introduction  

Jonathan Howard

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Feb 2014
eISBN: 
9780191776786
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854544.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780192854544
Darwin: A Very Short Introduction explores how Charles Darwin's theory of evolution has revolutionized biology since it was first presented to a wide readership in 1859. At ... More
3. Natural selection and the origin of species

3. Natural selection and the origin of species  

Jonathan Howard

in Darwin: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Feb 2014
eISBN: 
9780191776786
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854544.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854544
‘Natural selection and the origin of species’ shows that natural selection is the mechanism of evolutionary change, which is not readily observable, but is inferred by argument from other ... More
7. Evolving

7. Evolving  

Keith Thomson

in Fossils: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776090
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805041.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192805041
‘Evolving’ shows that fossils have played a major role in the development of all aspects of organic evolution and continue to play an essential role with respect to working out the patterns ... More
1. What is learning?

1. What is learning?  

Mark Haselgrove

in Learning: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2016
Published Online: 
Jul 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785412
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688364.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688364
Learning is a phenomenon that can be observed across the animal kingdom. ‘What is learning?’ considers the properties and principles of a number of different types of learning across a ... More
5. When learning goes wrong

5. When learning goes wrong  

Mark Haselgrove

in Learning: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2016
Published Online: 
Jul 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785412
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688364.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688364
Learning can be very adaptive, but sometimes, for some reason, it goes wrong. First, the properties of learning can go awry, so that inappropriate associations develop. Alternatively, ... More
1. Origins

1. Origins  

Sebastian G.B. Amyes

in Bacteria: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777752
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199578764.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199578764
‘Origins’ considers how bacteria, single-celled organisms known as prokaryotic cells, first emerged approximately 3.5 billion years ago, developing from a common ancestor of prokaryotic and ... More

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