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7. Civil injuries and the law of torts

7. Civil injuries and the law of torts  

G. Edward White

in American Legal History: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2013
Published Online: 
Dec 2013
eISBN: 
9780199375240
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199766000.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199766000
‘Civil injuries and the law of torts’ explains that tort law's identity as a discrete field was initially associated with the rise and expansion of negligence as a standard of civil ... More
5. Understanding recent trends in crime

5. Understanding recent trends in crime  

Tim Newburn

in Criminology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2018
Published Online: 
Apr 2018
eISBN: 
9780191785511
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199643257.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199643257
What is happening to crime? Are things getting better or worse, and in what ways? ‘Understanding recent trends in crime’ examines recorded crime trends and data from victimization surveys ... More
1. What is the welfare state?

1. What is the welfare state?  

David Garland

in The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191780981
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672660.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672660
There are three general conceptions used for the welfare state: the first characterizes the welfare state as welfare for the poor; the second focuses on social insurance, social rights, and ... More
1. Risk decisions

1. Risk decisions  

Baruch Fischhoff and John Kadvany

in Risk: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777714
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199576203.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199576203
Risk is all around us, and can come in any number of forms. ‘Risk decisions’ uses decision theory to turn the assessment of these risks into an exercise in practical reasoning. Decision ... More
4. Gambling and insurance

4. Gambling and insurance  

Michael Allingham

in Choice Theory: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775710
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803030.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803030
‘Gambling and insurance’ considers choice from gambles. Attitudes to risk are manifest in choices from gambles in which all prizes are sums of money. Two aspects of a gamble — its expected ... More
3. Securitized banking

3. Securitized banking  

John Goddard and John O. S. Wilson

in Banking: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785320
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688920.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688920
Preceding the global financial crisis of 2007–09, an alternative business model of banking evolved. An important element in the development of the securitized banking model was a growing ... More
4. The welfare state 1.0

4. The welfare state 1.0  

David Garland

in The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191780981
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672660.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672660
The newly-emergent welfare states shared a distinctive set of features that set them apart both from the old poor laws and from state socialism. ‘The Welfare State 1.0’ identifies these ... More
Prologue

Prologue  

Partha Dasgupta

in Economics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776328
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853455.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853455
‘Prologue’ gives a brief overview of the field of economics. The lives of people in developed and developing countries varies wildly, and economics attempts to explain and influence the ... More
23. Edwardian Years: A Crisis of the State Contained

23. Edwardian Years: A Crisis of the State Contained  

Christopher Harvie and H. C. G. Matthew

in Nineteenth-Century Britain: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776533
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853981.003.0023
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853981
‘Edwardian Years: A Crisis of the State Contained’ is concerned with the genesis of the welfare state and the other changes of the Edwardian period. Social inquiries revealed the levels of ... More
4. Living: here and there

4. Living: here and there  

Philip N. Jefferson

in Poverty: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2018
Published Online: 
Jul 2018
eISBN: 
9780191785078
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198716471.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198716471
What it means to live in poverty depends on where in the world you are. Developed countries have their own brand of poverty that differs qualitatively from that in the developing world. ... More
3. Progressive reform across the globe

3. Progressive reform across the globe  

Stella Z. Theodoulou and Ravi K. Roy

in Public Administration: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2016
Published Online: 
Aug 2016
eISBN: 
9780191792014
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198724230.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198724230
Modern, rationally structured, hierarchical state administrative bureaucracies coincided with the centralization of government authority and expansion of European imperialist military ... More
2. Defining risk

2. Defining risk  

Baruch Fischhoff and John Kadvany

in Risk: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777714
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199576203.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199576203
‘Defining Risk’ looks at how risks can be specified so we can make choices about them. Effectively defining risk is essential to improving outcomes, but it can lead to a lack of moral ... More
The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction

The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction  

David Garland

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191780981
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672660.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199672660
The programmes that make up the welfare state vary from nation to nation and from time to time, and the balance between markets and government, and free enterprise and social protection, is ... More
3. Birth of the welfare state

3. Birth of the welfare state  

David Garland

in The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191780981
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672660.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672660
‘Birth of the welfare state’ describes the embryonic version of the welfare state in Germany with Chancellor Bismarck’s social insurance laws in the 1880s. A decade later governments in ... More
6. Households and firms

6. Households and firms  

Partha Dasgupta

in Economics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776328
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853455.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853455
‘Households and firms’ assesses the economics of smaller institutions. The household is perhaps the smallest institutional unit, defined by families sharing food. Parents wish to promote ... More
Choice Theory: A Very Short Introduction

Choice Theory: A Very Short Introduction  

Michael Allingham

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775710
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803030.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780192803030
We make choices all the time — about trivial matters, about how to spend our money, about how to spend our time, about what to do with our lives. Choice Theory: A Very Short Introduction ... More
3. Who bears the tax burden?

3. Who bears the tax burden?  

Stephen Smith

in Taxation: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2015
Published Online: 
Apr 2015
eISBN: 
9780191782336
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199683697.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199683697
Who bears the tax burden?’ explains that the economic perspective on taxation distinguishes between the ‘formal’ and ‘effective’ (or ‘economic’) incidence of a tax. Formal incidence is a ... More
1. Origins and function of banking

1. Origins and function of banking  

John Goddard and John O. S. Wilson

in Banking: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785320
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688920.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688920
A bank is an institution that accepts deposits from savers, extends loans to borrowers, and provides a range of other financial services to its customers. Banks are a central part of the ... More
5. Regulation and supervision of the banking industry

5. Regulation and supervision of the banking industry  

John Goddard and John O. S. Wilson

in Banking: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785320
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688920.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688920
As financial intermediaries, commercial banks use liquid liabilities to finance illiquid assets. Banks hold only a small proportion of their assets in the form of reserves, and cannot cope ... More
2. The structure of taxation

2. The structure of taxation  

Stephen Smith

in Taxation: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2015
Published Online: 
Apr 2015
eISBN: 
9780191782336
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199683697.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199683697
‘The structure of taxation’ shows that tax systems in different countries vary widely, but nearly all share some common elements—including taxes on personal incomes, sales taxes, and taxes ... More

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