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3. The later philosophy

3. The later philosophy  

A. C. Grayling

in Wittgenstein: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776656
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854117.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854117
Prior to the mid-1930s, Wittgenstein‘s thought went through a period of transition in which new themes emerged as he reconsidered Tractatus. The writings of this period are genuinely ... More
20. Descartes’s Ghost

20. Descartes’s Ghost  

Tom Sorell

in Descartes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776632
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854094.003.0020
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854094
‘Descartes's Ghost’ considers his influence. His writings were placed on the Index by the Roman Catholic Church in 1663. Some decades later, Newton's physics superseded Descartes', and ... More
7. Logic

7. Logic  

Jonathan Barnes

in Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Nov 2015
eISBN: 
9780191822322
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854087.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854087
‘Logic’ explores Aristotle’s syllogistic. In the Prior Analytics Aristotle uses ‘proposition’ for simple sentences and ‘term’ for their salient parts. Thus a proposition affirms or denies ... More
7. Scientism versus Obscurantism: Avoiding the traditional predicament in philosophy

7. Scientism versus Obscurantism: Avoiding the traditional predicament in philosophy  

Simon Critchley

in Continental Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776373
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853592.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853592
‘Scientism versus Obscurantism: Avoiding the traditional predicament in philosophy’ argues that from a Continental perspective, the adoption of scientism in philosophy fails fundamentally ... More
5. Logic and reality

5. Logic and reality  

Julia Annas

in Ancient Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776359
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853578.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853578
Why is logic needed as part of philosophy? This topic has always been controversial. We need logic to make sure that our arguments are sound. In ancient philosophy, logic has the function ... More
13. Empiricism

13. Empiricism  

Jonathan Barnes

in Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Nov 2015
eISBN: 
9780191822322
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854087.003.0013
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854087
‘Empiricism’ stresses that, for Aristotle, knowledge or science ultimately derives from perception. That is the source of the concepts in terms of which we seek to understand reality. ... More
1. Life and work

1. Life and work  

A. C. Grayling

in Russell: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775659
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802583.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802583
‘Life and work’ outlines the contributions of Bertrand Russell to the technical fields of logic and philosophy as well as describing his private life — his marriages, agnosticism, pacifism, ... More
4. The logic of illusion

4. The logic of illusion  

Roger Scruton

in Kant: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775482
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192801999.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192801999
Understanding can yield objective knowledge, but it also contains a temptation to illusion. Kant tries to diagnose and criticize this temptation in his examination of ‘pure reason’. ‘The ... More
5. Philosophical developments and disputes

5. Philosophical developments and disputes  

Matthew T. Kapstein

in Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2013
Published Online: 
Oct 2013
eISBN: 
9780199375226
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199735129.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199735129
‘Philosophical developments and disputes’ outlines Tibetan monastic education and the emergence of Tibetan scholasticism from the tenth century to recent times. The Sangpu curriculum was ... More
2. Assisted dying: good medical practice, or murder?

2. Assisted dying: good medical practice, or murder?  

Michael Dunn and Tony Hope

in Medical Ethics: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2018
Published Online: 
Nov 2018
eISBN: 
9780191853173
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198815600.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198815600
Euthanasia is one form of assisted dying. Other forms include assisting suicide and the withholding or withdrawing of life-extending medical treatment. The practice of euthanasia—killing a ... More
Stoicism: A Very Short Introduction

Stoicism: A Very Short Introduction  

Brad Inwood

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2018
Published Online: 
Jul 2018
eISBN: 
9780191828973
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198786665.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198786665
Stoicism: A Very Short Introduction introduces Stoic philosophy, and explains how ancient Stoicism survived and evolved into the movement we see today. Exploring the roots of ... More
3. The origins of the schoolStoicism and Plato

3. The origins of the school: Stoicism and Plato  

Brad Inwood

in Stoicism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2018
Published Online: 
Jul 2018
eISBN: 
9780191828973
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198786665.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198786665
The earliest Stoics shared a great deal with Plato and his followers, so why didn’t the early Stoics just join Plato’s Academy? The problem was metaphysics. Plato’s most distinctive ... More
5. Ethics

5. Ethics  

Brad Inwood

in Stoicism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2018
Published Online: 
Jul 2018
eISBN: 
9780191828973
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198786665.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198786665
Ethics is the part of the Stoics’ legacy that is most prominent and influential today. Their theory of the good life for human beings falls into the family of theories associated with ... More
6. Logic

6. Logic  

Brad Inwood

in Stoicism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2018
Published Online: 
Jul 2018
eISBN: 
9780191828973
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198786665.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198786665
‘Logic’ explains that logic has a broad and a narrow sense in Stoic theory and deals with a subset of sayables and meanings. Their logic is close to what we would call propositional logic. ... More
12. Causes

12. Causes  

Jonathan Barnes

in Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Nov 2015
eISBN: 
9780191822322
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854087.003.0012
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854087
Material objects change, and their changes are caused. The scientist’s world is full of causes, and scientific knowledge requires the capacity to state causes and to give explanations. We ... More
20. Afterlife

20. Afterlife  

Jonathan Barnes

in Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Nov 2015
eISBN: 
9780191822322
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854087.003.0020
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854087
‘Afterlife’ argues that an account of Aristotle’s intellectual legacy would amount to a history of European thought. Aristotle’s various doctrines and beliefs were accepted and taught as ... More
2. Logic and philosophy

2. Logic and philosophy  

A. C. Grayling

in Russell: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775659
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802583.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802583
‘Logic and philosophy’ shows that Russell's first truly original philosophical endeavour was to show that mathematics rests on logic. The project failed, but a number of important ... More
7. Deducing

7. Deducing  

Timothy Williamson

in Philosophical Method: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2020
Published Online: 
Aug 2020
eISBN: 
9780191847240
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198810001.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198810001
Detective work is an important tool in philosophy. ‘Deducing’ explains the difference between valid and sound arguments. An argument is valid if its premises are true but is only sound if ... More
4. Collecting Facts

4. Collecting Facts  

Jonathan Barnes

in Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Nov 2015
eISBN: 
9780191822322
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854087.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854087
‘Collecting Facts’ examines Aristotle’s research methods. While much of his work was based on his own study and observations, he also relied on the expertise of others. Written sources were ... More
8. Transcendental philosophy

8. Transcendental philosophy  

Roger Scruton

in Kant: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775482
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192801999.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192801999
Kant's immediate successors regarded Kant as having changed the course of philosophy. However, even during his lifetime, the intellectual world was torn by controversy over the meaning of ... More

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