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8. The eyes of heaven: pairs and sequences

8. The eyes of heaven: pairs and sequences  

Pinch Geraldine

in Egyptian Myth: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2004
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775802
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803467.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803467
The ‘sacred eye’ of Egypt brings together the two most important elements in Egyptian religion: the solar cult and the Osiris cult. The sacred eye is now one of the best known symbols of ... More
5. The third dimension

5. The third dimension  

Michael Land

in The Eye: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2014
Published Online: 
May 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779961
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199680306.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199680306
Each retina has a two-dimensional image of the world. ‘The third dimension’ explains how distance is perceived using binocular stereopsis, which deals with retinal disparity, and monocular ... More
6. Twilight in the far west

6. Twilight in the far west  

Barry Cunliffe

in Druids: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777233
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199539406.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199539406
Irish vernacular literature reveals Irish Druids, in the centuries before Christianity, as men of power, established in royal courts and serving as intermediaries between gods and men. ... More
5. Modern Times I: The Christian Kabbalah

5. Modern Times I: The Christian Kabbalah  

Joseph Dan

in Kabbalah: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780199365616
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780195327052.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780195327052
Towards the end of the fifteenth century, the Kabbalah transformed from a uniquely Jewish tradition to one mixed with European culture, Christian thinking, philosophy, science, and magic. ... More
5. Justice

5. Justice  

Malcolm Gaskill

in Witchcraft: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777158
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199236954.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199236954
The early church did not execute witches, seeing them as reformable, but in the Middle Ages the campaign against heresy intensified. Reliance on secular power to kill diabolists was ... More
7. Fallen angels

7. Fallen angels  

David Albert Jones

in Angels: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777301
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199547302.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199547302
If the forces of light are angels, what are the forces of darkness? Where do they come from? Led by the Devil, they were originally good angels who rebelled and turned against God. These ... More
9. Neodruids and the neopagans

9. Neodruids and the neopagans  

Barry Cunliffe

in Druids: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777233
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199539406.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199539406
Whilst 18th-century neodruidic societies embraced the trappings of romantic druidism — occasionally making spurious claims to legitimate descent from the Druids of the Classical world — ... More
2. Heresy

2. Heresy  

Malcolm Gaskill

in Witchcraft: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777158
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199236954.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199236954
According to ‘Heresy’, historically, political and religious orthodoxy went together. Romans saw witches as ruthless criminals. The early Christian church expressed hostility to magic but ... More
1. Fear

1. Fear  

Malcolm Gaskill

in Witchcraft: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777158
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199236954.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199236954
‘Fear’ reminds us that witches are monsters haunting our dreams, confirming who we are through what we are not. Witches are living projections of feelings that defy easy rationalization or ... More
3. Gods in the North

3. Gods in the North  

Owen Davies

in Paganism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777110
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199235162.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199235162
While the leaders of some Germanic tribes converted in the 4th century, it was in northern Europe that non-Christian religions held out the longest against the spread of Christianity. This ... More
8. Culture

8. Culture  

Malcolm Gaskill

in Witchcraft: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777158
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199236954.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199236954
Witches are archetypes, stored inside individuals but originating in shared cultural sources and activated by similar experiences and emotions. The stereotype of the historic and folkloric ... More
2. Religious superstition

2. Religious superstition  

Stuart Vyse

in Superstition: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2020
Published Online: 
Jan 2020
eISBN: 
9780191859854
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198819257.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198819257
Under Theodosius I (r. 379–95) Christianity became the Roman Empire’s official religion and the word superstitio was now used against those who once used it against Christians. ‘Religious ... More
4. Odds, evens, and shells

4. Odds, evens, and shells  

Frank Close

in Nuclear Physics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2015
Published Online: 
Jul 2015
eISBN: 
9780191788062
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198718635.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198718635
‘Odds, evens, and shells’ considers the fundamental property laws governing nuclear structure. It explains element stability and abundance, as well as the quantum rules, magic numbers, ... More
4. Ritual and transformation

4. Ritual and transformation  

Barry Stephenson

in Ritual: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2015
Published Online: 
Feb 2015
eISBN: 
9780199394432
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199943524.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199943524
There are many rites that traffic in symbols and processes of transformation: healing rites, funerary rites, magic, sacrifice, rites of inversion, and rites of passage. Ritual theorists ... More
Introduction: initial observations

Introduction: initial observations  

Owen Davies

in Magic: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777929
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199588022.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199588022
What does magic mean to scholars, non-scholars, scientists, writers, primitive societies, and modern cultures? ‘Introduction: initial observations’ asks How do you define magic? The Ancient ... More
Final thoughts

Final thoughts  

Owen Davies

in Magic: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777929
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199588022.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199588022
Magic does not live in the past — magic is alive and well today, all over the world. Magic has a range of meanings and has still has relevance. Magic is a language, a belief, an action, ... More
5. Practising magic

5. Practising magic  

Owen Davies

in Magic: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777929
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199588022.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199588022
You have to ‘do’ magic — it's a practical action. In ‘Practising magic’ magical actions, such as the sympathetic magic (voodoo dolls), the doctrine of signatures (powerful plants), and ... More
10. So, who were the Druids?

10. So, who were the Druids?  

Barry Cunliffe

in Druids: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777233
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199539406.003.0010
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199539406
The elite class of ‘the wise’ — Bards, Vates, and Druids — was rapidly changing in the early 1st millennium AD — even in Ireland, where the impact of the Roman world was slight. Changes in ... More
5. Altars steeped in human blood

5. Altars steeped in human blood  

Barry Cunliffe

in Druids: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777233
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199539406.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199539406
According to ‘Altars steeped in human blood’, the Posidonian tradition presents a coherent picture of the ritual and religious world of the Celts, where the Druids were wise philosophers, ... More
3. Malice

3. Malice  

Malcolm Gaskill

in Witchcraft: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777158
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199236954.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199236954
‘Malice’ argues that, while the Scientific Revolution is credited with ending belief in witchcraft, the Industrial Revolution was equally significant, delivering a liberating prosperity. A ... More

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