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7. The Witness and the Watched: Yoga and Sāṃkhya

7. The Witness and the Watched: Yoga and Sāṃkhya  

Sue Hamilton

in Indian Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776403
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853745.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853745
The mental exercises, or meditative disciplines, known as ‘yoga’ have been a part of Indian tradition since very early times. Over time, many different varieties of yoga have been taught. ... More
2. From humours to cells: components of mind

2. From humours to cells: components of mind  

Michael O’Shea

in The Brain: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776496
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853929.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853929
‘From humours to cells’ explores historical perspectives on the brain. The Greeks were the first to see that the brain was central to thought. Hippocrates postulated that there were four ... More
5. Categories and MethodVaiśeṣika and Nyāya

5. Categories and Method: Vaiśeṣika and Nyāya  

Sue Hamilton

in Indian Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776403
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853745.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853745
One of the earliest systems of thought to emerge from the early milieu (2nd century bce), which was concerned with ‘what to look at’, was that of Kaṇāda, as recorded in his Vaiśeṣika Sūtra. ... More
1. Life and work

1. Life and work  

A. C. Grayling

in Russell: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775659
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802583.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802583
‘Life and work’ outlines the contributions of Bertrand Russell to the technical fields of logic and philosophy as well as describing his private life — his marriages, agnosticism, pacifism, ... More
2. The mechanical mind

2. The mechanical mind  

Tim Bayne

in Thought: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778148
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199601721.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199601721
What makes a thinker? It has been argued that thought comes from a non-physical medium such as a soul or immaterial mind. This notion has few advocates in science or philosophy, who endorse ... More
6. Philosophical problems in physics, biology, and psychology

6. Philosophical problems in physics, biology, and psychology  

Samir Okasha

in Philosophy of Science: Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2016
Published Online: 
Jul 2016
eISBN: 
9780191807640
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198745587.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198745587
‘Philosophical problems in physics, biology, and psychology’ examines three philosophical questions that are specific to particular sciences. First, the debate between Gottfried Leibniz and ... More
1. Matter and Metaphysics

1. Matter and Metaphysics  

Tom Sorell

in Descartes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776632
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854094.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854094
‘Matter and Metaphysics’ explores Descartes' theory that only geometrical properties — length, depth, and breadth — were essential to matter, and that only these properties and motion were ... More
5. Social communication: the heart of the matter

5. Social communication: the heart of the matter  

Uta Frith

in Autism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776922
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199207565.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199207565
‘Social communication: the heart of the matter’ asks: Why can't you fully share in the social world if you are autistic? Is there an extra social sense, beyond sound, sight, or touch, that ... More
3. The inner sanctum

3. The inner sanctum  

Tim Bayne

in Thought: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778148
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199601721.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199601721
Thinking is a private activity. Thought can't be accessed by anyone else. This concept of thoughts is described as Cartesian after René Descartes. ‘The inner sanctum’ focuses on the ... More
5. ‘They don’t think like we do’

5. ‘They don’t think like we do’  

Tim Bayne

in Thought: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778148
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199601721.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199601721
Are the structures of thought fundamentally invariant across changes of cultural context, or is it true that ‘they’ do not think like ‘we’ do? Most psychologists consider human thought as ... More
5. Material minds

5. Material minds  

Catherine Wilson

in Epicureanism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2015
Published Online: 
Dec 2015
eISBN: 
9780191808951
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688326.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688326
‘Material minds’ considers Epicurus’ theory of perception and his views on knowledge and truth. The Epicureans maintained that the soul, like everything else, was material, composed of very ... More
5. The voice of conscience: is it still to be heard?

5. The voice of conscience: is it still to be heard?  

Paul Strohm

in Conscience: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777585
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199569694.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199569694
Conscience retains its Roman inheritance of a spoken intervention. It is a voice. It needs to secure rights and means of speech if it is to make its influence felt. However, conscience ... More
1. ‘Who am I?’ Identity in philosophy

1. ‘Who am I?’ Identity in philosophy  

Florian Coulmas

in Identity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2019
Published Online: 
Feb 2019
eISBN: 
9780191867033
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198828549.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198828549
The question of how consciousness and self-awareness connect with personal identity has accompanied philosophy since antiquity. Sages of diverse orientations have put forth various ... More
16. Body

16. Body  

Tom Sorell

in Descartes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776632
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854094.003.0016
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854094
Just as Descartes conceived the mind without attributes involving a body as complete, so a conception of body that omits all properties dependent on a mind was also considered complete. ... More
15. The Mind

15. The Mind  

Tom Sorell

in Descartes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776632
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854094.003.0015
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854094
Descartes' sharp distinction between mind and body is known as Cartesian Dualism: the mind is one sort of substance, the body another. ‘The Mind’ argues that Descartes classifies minds ... More
The Brain: A Very Short Introduction

The Brain: A Very Short Introduction  

Michael O'Shea

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776496
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853929.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780192853929
How does the brain work? The Brain, A Very Short Introduction provides a non-technical introduction to the main issues and findings in current brain research, and gives a sense of how ... More
4. Learning and animal culture

4. Learning and animal culture  

Tristram D. Wyatt

in Animal Behaviour: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2017
Published Online: 
Feb 2017
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198712152.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
Learning is an animal’s capacity to change behaviour, as the result of individual experience, so that it is better adapted to the animal’s physical and social environments. Learning helps ... More
Russell: A Very Short Introduction

Russell: A Very Short Introduction  

A. C. Grayling

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775659
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802583.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780192802583
Russell: A Very Short Introduction provides an account of the life of Bertrand Russell (1872–1970), one of the most famous and important philosophers of the twentieth century. ... More
3. Philosophy, mind, and science

3. Philosophy, mind, and science  

A. C. Grayling

in Russell: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775659
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802583.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802583
‘Philosophy, mind, and science’ considers the questions of method and metaphysics that became important to Bertrand Russell during the course of his work on perception. The philosophy and ... More
4. Man

4. Man  

Roger Scruton

in Spinoza: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775758
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803160.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803160
Spinoza believed that all things exist necessarily in thoroughgoing interdependence. This seems to leave the whole of morality in doubt. ‘Man’ considers what Spinoza's philosophy has to say ... More

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