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6. Emergence

6. Emergence  

John H. Holland

in Complexity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2014
Published Online: 
Jul 2014
eISBN: 
9780191780004
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199662548.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199662548
‘Emergence’ looks at the relations between building blocks, generated systems, and the phenomenon of emergence. To understand emergent phenomena, it is necessary to describe the emergence ... More
3. Explanation in science

3. Explanation in science  

Samir Okasha

in Philosophy of Science: Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2016
Published Online: 
Jul 2016
eISBN: 
9780191807640
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198745587.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198745587
‘Explanation in science’ begins with Carl Hempel’s covering law model of explanation, which says that to explain a phenomenon is to show that its occurrence follows deductively from a ... More
3. Working a career

3. Working a career  

Stephen Fineman

in Work: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778452
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199699360.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199699360
How do we define a career? It can be defined by a single term. Alternatively it can be defined by a series of disconnected occupations. The attractiveness of various careers ebb and flow ... More
8. The Ethics of Information

8. The Ethics of Information  

Luciano Floridi

in Information: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777349
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199551378.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199551378
‘The ethics of information’ explores the ethical implications of the information revolution. The RPT model states that information can be treated as a resource, a product, or a target. All ... More
10. Dream consciousness

10. Dream consciousness  

J. Allan Hobson

in Dreaming: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775499
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802156.003.0010
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802156
‘Dream consciousness’ describes how modern sleep science has contributed to the dramatic progress of the last decade in understanding the brain basis of consciousness, and how that ... More
10. Applied chaos: can we see through our models?

10. Applied chaos: can we see through our models?  

Leonard A. Smith

in Chaos: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776410
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853783.003.0010
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853783
‘Applied chaos: can we see through our models?’ investigates the application of chaotic models. Traditional statistics has exploited data-based models, such as the persistence, advective, ... More
7. Real numbers, real observations, and computers

7. Real numbers, real observations, and computers  

Leonard A. Smith

in Chaos: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776410
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853783.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853783
‘Real numbers, real observations, and computers’ examines the relation between numbers in mathematical models, the real world, and in computer simulations. Real measurements and all ... More
9. Predictability: does chaos constrain our forecasts?

9. Predictability: does chaos constrain our forecasts?  

Leonard A. Smith

in Chaos: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776410
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853783.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853783
‘Probability: does chaos constrain our forecast?’ explores the accuracy of forecasting. Prediction allows us to examine the link between our models and the real world. However, forecasts ... More
8. Tracing human origins and history

8. Tracing human origins and history  

Claudio Tuniz

in Radioactivity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778391
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199692422.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199692422
‘Tracing human origins and history’ shows how radioactivity-based geochronometers and advanced radiation-based microscopes have answered many questions about human ancestors. Argon-argon ... More
2. Embryonic stem cells

2. Embryonic stem cells  

Jonathan Slack

in Stem Cells: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778162
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199603381.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199603381
‘Embryonic stem cells’ looks at mammalian embryo development and how embryonic stem (ES) cells are grown. ES cells are grown in tissue culture from the inner cell mass of a mammalian ... More
5. Movers and shakers

5. Movers and shakers  

David Blockley

in Structural Engineering: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2014
Published Online: 
Sep 2014
eISBN: 
9780191780974
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199671939.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199671939
What do a jumbo jet, a cruise ship, a long span bridge, and a tall skyscraper have in common? They are, in essence, gigantic tubes or boxes that act as beams. ‘Movers and shakers’ examines ... More
7. Co-evolution and the formation of niches

7. Co-evolution and the formation of niches  

John H. Holland

in Complexity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2014
Published Online: 
Jul 2014
eISBN: 
9780191780004
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199662548.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199662548
What is a niche? ‘Co-evolution and the formation of niches’ explains that the term ‘niche’ is widely used to describe an important part of the hierarchical organization of complex adaptive ... More
7. Statistical computing

7. Statistical computing  

David J. Hand

in Statistics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777097
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199233564.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199233564
‘Statistical computing’ explores the role of information technology in statistical analysis. As computer power has increased, models have become more and more advanced. Somewhat ... More
2. The beginning of secular feminism

2. The beginning of secular feminism  

Margaret Walters

in Feminism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776106
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805102.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192805102
‘The beginning of secular feminism’ explores the early secular self-assertion of women, and the difficulties and criticisms they encountered. The significant role of Royalist women during ... More
1. Models

1. Models  

Timothy Gowers

in Mathematics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776397
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853615.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853615
‘Models’ introduces the concept and purposes of mathematical models. From working out the best trajectory for throwing a stone, rolling a pair of dice, and predicting population growth and ... More
5. Meat-eating

5. Meat-eating  

David DeGrazia

in Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776380
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853608.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853608
Can we regard the harm caused to factory farm animals as necessary? We do not need to eat meat in order to live or even to stay healthy. ‘Meat-eating’ examines the ethics of eating meat by ... More
5. Risk perception

5. Risk perception  

Baruch Fischhoff and John Kadvany

in Risk: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777714
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199576203.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199576203
‘Risk perception’ examines how people understand risk, and how this understanding influences decision-making. Effectively making a risk decision requires an individual to have an ... More
1. To see ‘g’ or not to see ‘g’ …How many types of intelligence are there?

1. To see ‘g’ or not to see ‘g’ …: How many types of intelligence are there?  

Ian J. Deary

in Intelligence: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776854
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192893215.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192893215
Is human intelligence singular? The question of how to measure human mental capacities is a vexed one. ‘To see ‘g’ or not to see ‘g‘…’ outlines the sorts of things that can be measured in ... More
8. Sorry, wrong number: statistics and chaos

8. Sorry, wrong number: statistics and chaos  

Leonard A. Smith

in Chaos: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776410
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853783.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853783
‘Sorry, wrong number: statistics and chaos’ investigates the challenges posed by chaos to statistical estimation. Samples cannot be used in chaos theory as they are in statistics. Many ... More
6. Statistical models and methods

6. Statistical models and methods  

David J. Hand

in Statistics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777097
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199233564.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199233564
‘Statistical models and methods’ explores the construction of models. Models are a representation of the system being studied. These can be mechanistic, i.e. rooted in an underlying theory, ... More

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