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5. Robot swarms, evolution, and symbiosis

5. Robot swarms, evolution, and symbiosis  

Alan Winfield

in Robotics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778414
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199695980.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199695980
Robots often work with other robots. The idea of multi-robot systems is not new, but it is only recently that commercial systems have become available. ‘Robot swarms, evolution, and ... More
2. Transmission at different scales

2. Transmission at different scales  

Marta L. Wayne and Benjamin M. Bolker

in Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785276
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688937.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688937
The term ‘transmission’ defines infectious disease. Respiratory viruses such as influenza are airborne; diseases such as HIV and hepatitis are transmitted through direct, usually sexual, ... More
6. Malaria

6. Malaria  

Marta L. Wayne and Benjamin M. Bolker

in Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785276
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688937.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688937
Malaria is transmitted to humans through various species of Anopheles mosquitoes. In this century malaria rarely reaches out of the tropics, being limited by the ecological niche of its ... More
4. Genes as markers

4. Genes as markers  

Jonathan Slack

in Genes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2014
Published Online: 
Sep 2014
eISBN: 
9780191780950
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199676507.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199676507
‘Genes as markers’ shows that most genetic variation does not affect gene function or activity, but it is still of enormous interest. Notably it enables the identification of individual ... More
3. Mutations and gene variants

3. Mutations and gene variants  

Jonathan Slack

in Genes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2014
Published Online: 
Sep 2014
eISBN: 
9780191780950
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199676507.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199676507
All gene variants originate as mutations. Most variants in the genome of any given individual are not new mutations but have been inherited from previous generations. ‘Mutations and gene ... More
4. HIV

4. HIV  

Marta L. Wayne and Benjamin M. Bolker

in Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785276
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688937.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688937
HIV is the human immunodeficiency virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Its transmission is by exchange of bodily fluids. HIV can only enter immune cells with the ... More
3. Influenza

3. Influenza  

Marta L. Wayne and Benjamin M. Bolker

in Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785276
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688937.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688937
Influenza, or flu, has caused more deaths than any single disease outbreak since the 14th-century bubonic plague. Twenty to fifty million people worldwide died from the 1918 Spanish Flu, ... More
7. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

7. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis  

Marta L. Wayne and Benjamin M. Bolker

in Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785276
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688937.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688937
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a fungal pathogen that infects many different amphibian species, driving some of them to extinction. ‘Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis’ ... More
1. What are viruses?

1. What are viruses?  

Dorothy H. Crawford

in Viruses: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2018
Published Online: 
Mar 2018
eISBN: 
9780191848520
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198811718.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198811718
‘What are viruses?’ introduces viruses and their structure. Martinus Beijerinck, in 1898, was the first to coin the term ‘virus’, and invention of the electron microscope in the late 1930s ... More
1. Origins

1. Origins  

Sebastian G.B. Amyes

in Bacteria: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777752
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199578764.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199578764
‘Origins’ considers how bacteria, single-celled organisms known as prokaryotic cells, first emerged approximately 3.5 billion years ago, developing from a common ancestor of prokaryotic and ... More
Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction

Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction  

Marta Wayne and Benjamin Bolker

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785276
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688937.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199688937
Infectious disease is a moving target: new diseases emerge every year, old diseases evolve into new forms, and ecological and socioeconomic upheavals change the transmission pathways by ... More
1. Introduction

1. Introduction  

Marta L. Wayne and Benjamin M. Bolker

in Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785276
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688937.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688937
The ‘Introduction’ explains what infectious diseases are: diseases that are transmitted from one person to another. For most of human history, diseases could only be controlled at the ... More
8. Looking ahead

8. Looking ahead  

Marta L. Wayne and Benjamin M. Bolker

in Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785276
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688937.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688937
‘Looking ahead’ shows how our understanding of disease ecology and evolution has revolutionized disease management. By developing transmission control strategies to close the encounter ... More
5. Cholera

5. Cholera  

Marta L. Wayne and Benjamin M. Bolker

in Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785276
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688937.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688937
Cholera is a water-borne, diarrhoeal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. For illness to occur, humans must consume vast amounts of the bacteria and cholera must possess a ... More
8. Afterword

8. Afterword  

Brian Charlesworth and Deborah Charlesworth

in Evolution: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jun 2017
eISBN: 
9780191842719
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198804369.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198804369
The ‘Afterword’ provides a brief summary and concludes that our modern view of evolution is remarkably close to that of Wallace and Darwin. The chief difference is that two advances mean ... More
2. The processes of evolution

2. The processes of evolution  

Brian Charlesworth and Deborah Charlesworth

in Evolution: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jun 2017
eISBN: 
9780191842719
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198804369.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198804369
‘The processes of evolution’ introduces the main causal processes of evolution. Evolutionary change ultimately relies on the mutations of organisms. These are caused by stable changes in ... More

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