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4. From the Big Bang to the big brain

4. From the Big Bang to the big brain  

Michael O’Shea

in The Brain: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776496
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853929.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853929
‘From the Big Bang to the big brain’ charts the evolutionary history of the nervous system. The ability to sense and act on environmental stimuli exists even in single celled organisms. ... More
4. Communication and control

4. Communication and control  

Leslie Klenerman

in Human Anatomy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2015
Published Online: 
Feb 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785474
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198707370.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198707370
‘Communication and control’ considers the human nervous system, which has two anatomically separate, but closely related, components: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral ... More
Human Anatomy: A Very Short Introduction

Human Anatomy: A Very Short Introduction  

Leslie Klenerman

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2015
Published Online: 
Feb 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785474
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198707370.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198707370
Knowledge of the basic construction of the human body—the skeleton, the organs of the chest and abdomen, the nervous system, the head and neck with its sensory systems and anatomy for ... More
5. The bilaterians: building a body

5. The bilaterians: building a body  

Peter Holland

in The Animal Kingdom: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778049
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199593217.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199593217
Most animals are Bilateria. ‘The bilaterians: building a body’ explains that Bilaterians have ‘bilateral symmetry’, meaning they have a single line of mirror-image symmetry running down the ... More
8. Deuterostomes I: starfish, sea squirts, and amphioxus

8. Deuterostomes I: starfish, sea squirts, and amphioxus  

Peter Holland

in The Animal Kingdom: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778049
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199593217.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199593217
‘Deuterostomes I: starfish, sea squirts, and amphioxus’ is concerned with some of the phyla of the Deuterostomia superphylum — the Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and the Chordata subphyla ... More
9. Deuterostomes II: the rise of vertebrates

9. Deuterostomes II: the rise of vertebrates  

Peter Holland

in The Animal Kingdom: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778049
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199593217.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199593217
‘Deuterostomes II: the rise of vertebrates’ describes the key features of animals in the Chordata phylum — large size, efficient blood circulation, dynamic skeleton, intricate brain, ... More
5. Anaesthetic drugs and fluids

5. Anaesthetic drugs and fluids  

Aidan O’Donnell

in Anaesthesia: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777868
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199584543.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199584543
‘Anaesthic drugs and fluids’ looks at anaesthetic gases, such as nitrous oxide, which are used as an anaesthetic agent, intravenous induction agents, muscle-relaxant drugs, analgesics, and ... More
10. Regeneration

10. Regeneration  

Lewis Wolpert

in Developmental Biology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778100
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199601196.003.0011
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199601196
Regeneration is the ability of the fully developed organism to replace tissues, organs, and appendages. ‘Regeneration’ distinguishes between two types of regeneration: epimorphosis where ... More
1. Thinking about the brain

1. Thinking about the brain  

Michael O’Shea

in The Brain: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776496
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853929.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853929
‘Thinking about the brain’ asks: How do we even begin to contemplate our own thoughts? Thinking about the brain creates a self-referential paradox — we need to use our brain to think about ... More
The Animal Kingdom: A Very Short Introduction

The Animal Kingdom: A Very Short Introduction  

Peter Holland

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778049
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199593217.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199593217
The Animal Kingdom: A Very Short Introduction presents a modern tour of the animal kingdom. Beginning with the definition of animals, this VSI goes on to show the high-level ... More
1. What is an animal?

1. What is an animal?  

Peter Holland

in The Animal Kingdom: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778049
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199593217.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199593217
‘What is an animal?’ outlines the criteria for defining an ‘animal’. There are characteristics by which we recognize animals — they are multicellular, get the energy necessary for life by ... More
11. Enigmatic animals

11. Enigmatic animals  

Peter Holland

in The Animal Kingdom: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778049
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199593217.003.0011
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199593217
Could the current Animal Kingdom phylogenetic tree change? ‘Enigmatic animals’ predicts that it will not, but that new phyla may be discovered in the remote areas of the deep sea and ... More
3. The evolutionary tree of animals

3. The evolutionary tree of animals  

Peter Holland

in The Animal Kingdom: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778049
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199593217.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199593217
‘The evolutionary tree of animals’ charts the changing views on Animal Kingdom classification from Ernst Haeckel's earliest evolutionary trees in the 1860s to the more modern Coelomata ... More
7. Ecdysozoa: insects and nematodes

7. Ecdysozoa: insects and nematodes  

Peter Holland

in The Animal Kingdom: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778049
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199593217.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199593217
‘Ecdysozoa: insects and nematodes’ explains how DNA sequencing has resulted in two very different phyla — arthropods (insects) and nematodes (roundworms) — belonging to the same ... More
1. Suspended animation: concepts of anaesthesia

1. Suspended animation: concepts of anaesthesia  

Aidan O’Donnell

in Anaesthesia: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777868
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199584543.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199584543
Studies estimate that 234 million surgical procedures requiring anaesthesia are performed worldwide every year. ‘Suspended animation: concepts of anaesthesia’ looks at the state of being ... More
Developmental Biology: A Very Short Introduction

Developmental Biology: A Very Short Introduction  

Lewis Wolpert

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778100
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199601196.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199601196
Developmental Biology: A Very Short Introduction provides a concise account of what we now know about development, discussing the first vital steps of growth, the patterning ... More
2. Vertebrates

2. Vertebrates  

Lewis Wolpert

in Developmental Biology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778100
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199601196.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199601196
‘Vertebrates’ explains the developmental stages of vertebrates from embryos, including the development of the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral axes that define the left and right sides of ... More
8. Nervous system

8. Nervous system  

Lewis Wolpert

in Developmental Biology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778100
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199601196.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199601196
The nervous system is the most complex of the organ systems in the animal embryo. ‘Nervous system’ shows that the nervous-system development can be divided into four major stages: the ... More
1. The development of anatomy

1. The development of anatomy  

Leslie Klenerman

in Human Anatomy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2015
Published Online: 
Feb 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785474
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198707370.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198707370
‘The development of anatomy’ provides a short history of anatomical study beginning with Aristotle (384–322 bc) who named the subject anatome, meaning ‘cutting up’. Herophilus of Chalcedon ... More
4. Shedding light on the clock

4. Shedding light on the clock  

Russell G. Foster and Leon Kreitzman

in Circadian Rhythms: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191787164
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198717683.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198717683
Most circadian clocks make use of a sun-based mechanism as the primary entraining signal to lock the internal day to the astronomical day. For nearly four billion years, dawn and dusk has ... More

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