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2. A fruitful approach

2. A fruitful approach  

Guido Caldarelli and Michele Catanzaro

in Networks: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777936
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199588077.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199588077
‘A fruitful approach’ shows how the vertices and edges of graphs identify relations between things and how Jacob Moreno became the first to apply this to the analysis of social networks ... More
3. A world of networks

3. A world of networks  

Guido Caldarelli and Michele Catanzaro

in Networks: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777936
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199588077.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199588077
‘A world of networks’ considers how the world's networks are interconnected. In cyberspace, power grids support the Internet, which hosts the WWW, which in turn enables email services, ... More
4. Agents, networks, degree, and recirculation

4. Agents, networks, degree, and recirculation  

John H. Holland

in Complexity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2014
Published Online: 
Jul 2014
eISBN: 
9780191780004
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199662548.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199662548
‘Agents, networks, degree, and recirculation’ explains that when studying complex adaptive systems (CAS) in a grammar-like way, agents serve as the ‘alphabet’. The hierarchical organization ... More
1. Nature's driver

1. Nature's driver  

Nick Middleton

in Rivers: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777974
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199588671.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199588671
In what ways is water ‘Nature's driver’? It covers two-thirds of the Earth's surface and is constantly on the move in the hydrological cycle. Rivers play a key role in this cycle. They ... More
1. A network point of view on the world

1. A network point of view on the world  

Guido Caldarelli and Michele Catanzaro

in Networks: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777936
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199588077.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199588077
On a typical day, we check emails, update social network profiles, make mobile phone calls, use public transportation, take planes, and transfer money and goods. In all these cases — ... More
7. Digging deeper into networks

7. Digging deeper into networks  

Guido Caldarelli and Michele Catanzaro

in Networks: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777936
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199588077.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199588077
‘Digging deeper into networks’ shows that to capture the more subtle structure of networks one has to find measures that describe the surroundings of a node — degree distribution is not ... More
9. Cryptography in everyday life

9. Cryptography in everyday life  

Fred Piper and Sean Murphy

in Cryptography: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775741
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803153.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803153
‘Cryptography in everyday life’ contains a range of situations where the use of cryptography facilitates the provision of a secure service: cash withdrawal from an ATM, Pay TV, email and ... More
4. Railroads and mass distribution, 1850 –1880

4. Railroads and mass distribution, 1850 –1880  

Walter A. Friedman

in American Business History: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2020
Published Online: 
Jul 2020
eISBN: 
9780190622480
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780190622473.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190622473
“Railroads and mass distribution, 1850–1880” focuses on unprecedented economic and technological innovations in the decades after the Civil War. Coal, telegraph communication, and the ... More
2. Complex physical systems (CPS)

2. Complex physical systems (CPS)  

John H. Holland

in Complexity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2014
Published Online: 
Jul 2014
eISBN: 
9780191780004
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199662548.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199662548
‘Complex physical systems’ considers the characteristics of complex physical systems (CPS), which are often geometric (specifically, lattice-like) arrays of elements, in which interactions ... More
7. Co-evolution and the formation of niches

7. Co-evolution and the formation of niches  

John H. Holland

in Complexity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2014
Published Online: 
Jul 2014
eISBN: 
9780191780004
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199662548.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199662548
What is a niche? ‘Co-evolution and the formation of niches’ explains that the term ‘niche’ is widely used to describe an important part of the hierarchical organization of complex adaptive ... More
5. Youth culture—leisure pursuits and the cyberworld

5. Youth culture—leisure pursuits and the cyberworld  

Peter K. Smith

in Adolescence: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2016
Published Online: 
May 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785245
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199665563.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199665563
Adolescents spend a great deal of time in leisure pursuits, including hanging out with friends, playing sports, and playing or making music. Since the 1950s television viewing has taken up ... More
4. Connected and close

4. Connected and close  

Guido Caldarelli and Michele Catanzaro

in Networks: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777936
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199588077.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199588077
‘Connected and close’ shows almost all the elements of networks take part in one large connected structure, called a giant connected component. Almost every node has a path of connections ... More
5. Superconnectors

5. Superconnectors  

Guido Caldarelli and Michele Catanzaro

in Networks: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777936
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199588077.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199588077
‘Superconnectors’ compares homogeneous networks, where all nodes have more or less the same degree, and heterogeneous networks, where hubs, or superconnectors, are present. In homogeneous ... More
6. Emergence of networks

6. Emergence of networks  

Guido Caldarelli and Michele Catanzaro

in Networks: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777936
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199588077.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199588077
‘Emergence of networks’ considers a range of network models that explain how local mechanisms, without global planning, can generate large-scale, complex, ordered, and efficient structures. ... More
9. All the world’s a net; or not?

9. All the world’s a net; or not?  

Guido Caldarelli and Michele Catanzaro

in Networks: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777936
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199588077.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199588077
‘All the world's a net; or not?’ summarizes the extent and limitations of network science. There are warnings about the generalizations drawn from network theory, but the results of network ... More
7. Introduction to matrices

7. Introduction to matrices  

Peter M. Higgins

in Algebra: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2015
Published Online: 
Oct 2015
eISBN: 
9780191797644
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198732822.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198732822
Matrices represent the central algebraic vehicle for advanced computation throughout mathematics as well as the physical and social sciences. ‘Introduction to matrices’ explains that ... More
3. Electricity systems

3. Electricity systems  

Nick Jenkins

in Energy Systems: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2019
Published Online: 
Nov 2019
eISBN: 
9780191851643
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198813927.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198813927
‘Electricity systems’ explains that the two essential functions of an electricity system are to take power from the generators and distribute it to consumers, and to balance the supply and ... More
Complexity: A Very Short Introduction

Complexity: A Very Short Introduction  

John H. Holland

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2014
Published Online: 
Jul 2014
eISBN: 
9780191780004
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199662548.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199662548
From the movement of flocks of birds to the Internet, environmental sustainability, and market regulation, the study and understanding of complex non-linear systems has become highly ... More
4. Artificial neural networks

4. Artificial neural networks  

Margaret A. Boden

in Artificial Intelligence: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2018
Published Online: 
Aug 2018
eISBN: 
9780191821448
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199602919.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199602919
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are made up of many interconnected units, each one capable of computing only one thing. ANNs have myriad applications, from playing the stock market and ... More
5. Up to a point, Lord Copper’s: who owns journalists?

5. Up to a point, Lord Copper’s: who owns journalists?  

Ian Hargreaves

in Journalism: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2014
Published Online: 
Aug 2014
eISBN: 
9780191780042
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199686872.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199686872
Traditionally, we imagine journalists to be free-spirited mavericks unbound by rules and regulation. However, most modern journalism takes place within a corporate setting. ‘Up to a point, ... More

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