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2. Revolution: how oxygen changed the world

2. Revolution: how oxygen changed the world  

Philip Ball

in The Elements: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2004
Published Online: 
Apr 2014
eISBN: 
9780191776298
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192840998.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192840998
‘Revolution: how oxygen changed the world’ charts the discovery of oxygen. Antoine Lavoisier found that water and air were not actually elements, and in the process discovered oxygen, ... More
Introduction

Introduction  

Philip V. Mladenov

in Marine Biology: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
eISBN: 
9780191877124
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198841715.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198841715
The oceans cover 71 per cent of our planet’s surface, create a vast globally connected fluid living space, and support a diverse array of life forms. The Introduction outlines the ocean ... More
8. Controversies and prospects

8. Controversies and prospects  

David C. Catling

in Astrobiology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2013
Published Online: 
Oct 2013
eISBN: 
9780191779923
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199586455.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199586455
‘Controversies and prospects’ examines the Rare Earth Hypothesis and looks at prospects for astrobiology and finding life elsewhere. The Rare Earth Hypothesis is that the fortuitous ... More
2. The biology of mammals

2. The biology of mammals  

T. S. Kemp

in Mammals: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2017
Published Online: 
Sep 2017
eISBN: 
9780191821172
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198766940.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198766940
In order to understand mammals and their amazing variety, we must first learn about their shared biology. ‘The biology of mammals’ first considers how and why mammals stay warm and active. ... More
5. Forests and flight

5. Forests and flight  

Michael J. Benton

in The History of Life: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777011
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199226320.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199226320
‘Forests and flight’ shows that in the Carboniferous Period, from 360 to 300 million years ago, plants and animals cemented their land-living adaptations and took on all habitats and all ... More
6. The biggest mass extinction

6. The biggest mass extinction  

Michael J. Benton

in The History of Life: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777011
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199226320.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199226320
‘The biggest mass extinction’ discusses the biggest of the five mass extinctions — the end-Permian mass extinction 251 million years ago when up to 96 per cent of species died out. ... More
Blood: A Very Short Introduction

Blood: A Very Short Introduction  

Chris Cooper

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Sep 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785467
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199581450.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199581450
Blood is vital to most animals. In mammals it transports oxygen and food, carries away waste, and contains the white cells that attack invading microbes. Playing a central role in life, ... More
2. What is blood?

2. What is blood?  

Chris Cooper

in Blood: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Sep 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785467
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199581450.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199581450
‘What is blood?’ describes the constituent parts of blood: a fluid called plasma in which three different cell types are carried—red cells, white cells, and platelets. Red cells are ... More
2. Recycling

2. Recycling  

Tim Lenton

in Earth System Science: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2016
Published Online: 
Feb 2016
eISBN: 
9780191788338
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198718871.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198718871
How does the Earth system support such a flourishing of life? A habitable climate and water are essential, but organisms also need energy and materials out of which to build their bodies. ... More
Astrobiology: A Very Short Introduction

Astrobiology: A Very Short Introduction  

David C. Catling

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2013
Published Online: 
Oct 2013
eISBN: 
9780191779923
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199586455.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199586455
What fascinates people about astrobiology is that it seeks answers to long-standing unsolved questions: How quickly did life evolve on Earth and why did life persist here? Is there life ... More
4. From slime to the sublime

4. From slime to the sublime  

David C. Catling

in Astrobiology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2013
Published Online: 
Oct 2013
eISBN: 
9780191779923
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199586455.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199586455
‘From slime to the sublime’ asks: How did Earth maintain an environment fit for life? However life started, once established, it persisted for over 3.5 billion years and evolved from ... More
2. The origin of sex

2. The origin of sex  

Michael J. Benton

in The History of Life: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777011
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199226320.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199226320
‘The origin of sex’ begins with John Maynard Smith who suggested that the advantage of sexual reproduction was that sex shuffles genes more effectively than parthenogenesis, introducing ... More
The History of Life: A Very Short Introduction

The History of Life: A Very Short Introduction  

Michael J. Benton

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777011
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199226320.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199226320
The History of Life: A Very Short Introduction introduces ideas from a range of scientific disciplines, from evolutionary biology and earth history, to geochemistry, ... More
1. The elements of fire

1. The elements of fire  

Andrew C. Scott

in Fire: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2020
Published Online: 
Jun 2020
eISBN: 
9780191868429
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198830030.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198830030
Fire is an exothermic chemical reaction that produces energy in the form of heat and light. ‘The elements of fire’ explains its composition through a ‘triangle’ of heat, fuel, and oxygen, ... More
2. The deep history of fire

2. The deep history of fire  

Andrew C. Scott

in Fire: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2020
Published Online: 
Jun 2020
eISBN: 
9780191868429
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198830030.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198830030
‘The deep history of fire’ looks at how fire data can be preserved in nature, such as charcoal deposits and scars on the rings of trees. The history of fire is linked to changes in ... More
The Elements: A Very Short Introduction

The Elements: A Very Short Introduction  

Philip Ball

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2004
Published Online: 
Apr 2014
eISBN: 
9780191776298
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192840998.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780192840998
The Elements: A Very Short Introduction traces the history and cultural impact of the elements on humankind, and examines why people have long sought to identify the substances ... More

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